Communication • Involves sending and receiving meaningful messages • Tools are Speech and Language • Disorders may involve speech, language, or both
Definitions • Speech disorder is an impairment in the production and use of oral language • A language disorder involves problems in comprehending (receptive) and using language for communication (expressive)
Examples of Speech Disorders • Voice (specifically pitch, loudness, quality) can result from biological factors such as a cleft palate or nonbiological factors such as faulty learning. • Articulation - errors in producing words, may involve omissions, substitutions, distortions, or additions of sounds • Fluency - intense or frequent disruptions to the flow of speech that keep the speaker from being understood, e.g. stuttering
Examples of Language Disorders • Classified according to 5 sub-systems • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics
Small Group Activity • Think about Speech and Language differences as they are portrayed in the media, particularly television & movies, e.g. a character who lisps, stutters, or uses speech in a way intended to be comical or stereotypic • Describe an example and report to the class your discussions of 3 questions:
Questions • Does the example represent a disorder of communication or a communication variation? • Is the example portrayed to engender ridicule, sympathy, pity, admiration or some other emotion? • Why is the character given this speech or language disorder?