Welcome to the Communist Dance Party! OH NO! Karl’s got the lamp shade on his head again!
Russian Revolutions • The February Revolution of 1917 • Displaced Czar Nicholas II of Russia • He was the final czar • Attempt to establish a liberal government • The Provisional Government (Feb – October) • The October Revolution • Bolshevik party(Lenin led) • Coup to overthrow the Provisional Government • Revolution in the name of the Soviets • Soviets – workers council • Most occurs in Moscow but also in rural areas • Peasants seized and redistributed land.
Russian Revolution • Lenin (1917 – 1924) • NEP – permits some economic freedoms • Improved food and peasant life • USSR • Lenin’s death = Power struggle
Stalinism • Josef Stalin: 1922(1928) – 1953 • Trotsky • 5 year plans - #1 abolishes NEP, demands industrialization for security • Kulaks and collectivization – farms and tractor teamwork • Purges – workers and political dissidents • Anti-Hitler • WWII • The New Superpower • destalinization
Khrushchev • 1953 – 1964 • Space race • Cuba • Cold war
"The Spirit of Great Lenin and His Victorious Banner inspires us during this Great Patriotic War" (Joseph Stalin)
challenges • 1956: Hungary • 1968: Czechoslovakia • 1980: Poland • 1989: disintegration
How did the SOVIET UNION (Russia) replicate the past? • Authoritarian • Centralization of power • Emphasized territorial expansion • Cultural isolation from the west • Domination of Russians over other ethnics
Qing to Republic • Mid-19th century flooding and other economic issues make peasants unhappy • Increased social unrest • Social and economic systems could not cope with the changes of increased population • Taiping Rebellion • An attempt to overthrow Qing government • Attempt thwarted but secret societies working towards overthrowing continued
Qing to Republic (cont’d) • End of 19th century • Children of scholar-gentry and compradors (wealthy merchants) work towards overthrowing Qing Dynasty • 1905 – Civil Service exams end • Signified the end of the strong Confucian influence of society • Today, some influence remains • Sun Yat-sen • led failed attempts at toppling the empire • Successful in 1911
The Republic is Established • Republic of China established in 1912 • Sun Yat-Sen was the first leader (president) • Headed the Kuomintang(KMT) to govern over the Chinese Republic • Early years were quite turbulent
Republic of China (cont’d) • 1925 – Chiang Kai-shek controlled the KMT after Sun Yat-Sen’s death • With the support of the Soviet Union, he drove out rival warlords • Once the KMT regained control, Chiang purged the country of communists • Actually wanted to “eliminate” them • Sino-Japanese War – defeated by the Japanese but they benefited from Japan’s loss in WWII • Seen as a solid country and an ally to the West against communism
Post World War II China • Chinese Civil War • KMT vs Communist Party of China • Communist Party of China emerges victoriously led by Mao Zedong • People’s Republic of China • Established October 1, 1949 as a communist state • Nationalists (KMT and Chiang Kai-Shek) forced out of China and move to Taiwan
Mao’s Push for the Future • Work towards developing the infrastructure of the country • Strengthen industry, healthcare, and education to raise living standard • The Great Leap Forward • Collectivization
The “Great” Leap Forward • Communes – ppl working together to form self-sufficent economic units with light industry • Collectivization – agricultural unit requiring large amounts of peasants working together not for a wage but for a share of the farms’ output. • Result? • Initially, the economy grew drastically(1958) but by 1961, it had collapsed • Poor economic planning led to… • DISASTER!! • Statistics inflated and falsified to give impression that it was successful • Estimated that 20 million people died (many from starvation)
The Cultural Revolution • Mao’s attempt to purge the country of “counterrevolutionaries” and spread communist and Marxist ideology • 1968 – Mao himself was “promoted” and achieved a “god-like” status • He became the source of everything that was provided • Begins to lose control
Mao’s problems • Purges government of officials that give him problems and sends them to labor camps • Top officials try to stage a coup and assassinate Mao( Unsuccessful) • 1976 – Mao dies • 1978 – Deng Xiaoping takes charge • Moved more towards a Mixed economy but still communist and oppressive of “rival” groups
Post World War II Japan • Adopts a new constitution and a constitutional monarchy • Aggressive industrialization • Large emphasis on education • Economy stresses working together of all parties involved (workers and companies) and high job security • By 1980s, one of the top economies in the world • Elements of society in Japan are still highly traditional
Pacific Rim Economic Commonalties • Team emphasis allows the ability for fast economic growth • Loyalty vs. individualism • Confucian shapes moral code • Many countries after initial success have had to move to a western model • Thailand and Indonesia to counter slow or declining economies • 4 Asian Tigers • Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong
Define Cold War • The strategic and political struggle that developed after WWII between the United States and it’s Western European allies and the Soviet Union and Eastern European allies • Democracy vs. Communism
Cold War Characterisitcs • A political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world-Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. • It was a struggle that contained everything short of war. • Each side denied the others right to exist. • Each side used propaganda against the other.
Causes of the Cold War • Different political systems -US is based on democracy, capitalism and freedom -USSR is based on dictatorship, communism and control • Both thought their system was better and distrusted the others intentions • Stalin despised capitalism
Causes of Cold War • Stalin breaking his promise to allow free elections at the Yalta Conference • American fear of a communist attack(Red Scare) and USSR’s fear of a US attack • USSR’s fear of the atomic bomb • USSR’s actions in their German zone • USSR’s goal to spread communism around the world • This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for: US USSR Wanted to create greater security for itself -lost millions in WWII and Stalinist purges -feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on it’s borders Spread communism around the world • Wanted to promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression • Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa • Stop the spread of communism
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone -- Greece with its immortal glories -- is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation. The Russian-dominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany, and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamed-of are now taking place. The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.” Winston Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech
In 1947 the British were helping the Greek government fight against communist guerrillas. They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies, and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful western country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world. Truman Doctrine
In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. There were two motives for this: Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive. Marshall Plan
In 1948, the three western controlled zones of Germany's(US,France, UK) were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid. • The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. • In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of West Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector. • He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission. • The west responded by airlifting in the necessary supplies to allow west Berlin to survive. • In May 1949, Russia admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
NATOaka the “We Hate Communism” Club • In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to co-ordinate their defense against Russia. • It consisted of:-America, Canada, Britain, France, Holland, BelgiumLuxembourg, Portugal, Denmark, Norway and Italy • Still around today
Senator Joe McCarthy • Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) was a Republican Senator from Appleton, Wisconsin, who did the most to whip up anti-communism during the 1950s.
1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb Set off on Bikini Island in the Marshall Islands US Test Hydrogen Bomb-1952
Talks of peaceful co-existence and de-stalinization Stalin Dies-1953 Nikita Khrushchev Takes Over