How did the Han unify their empire? (3 ways) • Who founded the Han dynasty? • Draw the dynastic cycle. Warm up
Communists vs. Nationalists • Communist Leader: Mao Zedong • Communists had a stronghold in northwestern China. • They won the loyalty of the peasants by promoting literacy and improving food production. • Nationalist Leader: Jiang Jieshi • Dominated southwestern China. • Supported by the United States Communists vs. Nationalists
The Communists and Nationalists joined forces to fight the Japanese during WWII, but they started fighting again after the war. • Civil War lasted from 1946-1949. • Nationalists outnumbered the Communists 3 to 1 and the US continued to support the nationalists. • The Nationalists did little to win support of the people. • Many nationalist soldiers deserted to the communists.
In 1949, China’s major cities fell to the Communists. • Mao Zedong gained control of the country and proclaimed it the People’s Republic of China. • The Nationalist leaders fled to Taiwan. • The Communist victory fueled anti-Communist feelings in the US. • Communist China becomes friends with Soviet Russia.
The Superpowers React • After the Nationalists fled to Taiwan, the US helped them set up a new government. • The Soviets gave financial, military, and technical aid to Communist China. • The Chinese and Soviets pledged to come to each other’s aid if one was attacked.
China expands under the Communists • Chinese troops expanded into Tibet, India, and southern Mongolia. • The Chinese took control of Tibet in 1951 but said they would leave the Dalai Lama in control. • Dalai Lama flees to India. • Resentment between India and China grows because India gave aid to Tibetans.
Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven” • The Communist party made up 1% of the population. • Disciplined. Communists Transform China
Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism • Mao was determined to reshape China’s economy based on Marxist socialism. • 80% of people lived in rural areas but owned no land. • 10% of the population owned 70% of the land.
Agrarian Reform Law of 1950 – Mao seized the holdings of the landlords and divided the land among the peasants. • The government forced peasants to join collective farms of 200 to 300 households. • Over a million landlords were killed because they resisted. • Private companies were nationalized. (brought under government control). • Increased China’s productivity.
Larger collective farms – communes. • The average commune supported over 25,000 people. • Strictly controlled life • Ate in communal dining rooms, slept in communal dormitories, raised children in communal nurseries. • Owned nothing. • Peasants had no incentive to work hard. The Great Leap Forward
“The Great Leap Forward” was a giant step backward. • Poor planning • Program ended after a famine killed 20 million people.
New Policies and Mao’s Response • Territorial disputes with Soviet Russia. • Mao urged students for another revolution after several leaders moved away from Communism. • Red Guards – students who left their classrooms and formed militia units.
The Cultural Revolution. • The Red Guards led a major uprising known as the Cultural Revolution. • Goal: establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. • The new hero was the peasant who worked with his hands. • Intellectual activity was considered dangerous. • Shut down colleges and schools. • Intellectuals had to “purify themselves” in work camps. The Red Guards
Chaos ensued and Mao admitted the Cultural Revolution had to stop. • The army put it down. • Mao began to restore order.
Students demand democracy • In 1989, students sparked a popular uprising that stunned China’s leaders. • More than 10,000 students occupied Tiananmen Square and mounted a protest for democracy. • The student protest won widespread support. • Thousands of students began to hunger strike • People poured into Tiananmen Square to support them.
China declared martial law. • 10,000 troops were ordered to surround Beijing. • 5,000 students chose to stay and keep up the protest. • Erected a 33-foot statue “Goddess of Democracy”.
On June 4th, 1989, the standoff came to an end. • Thousands of heavily armed soldiers stormed Tiananmen Square. • Tanks smash through barricades and crushed the Goddess of Democracy. • Soldiers sprayed gunfire into crowds of frightened students • Killed hundreds and wounded thousands.
Government used the media to announce that reports of a massacre were untrue. • Officials claimed that a small group of criminals had plotted against the government. • It was too late, TV had already broadcast the truth around the world. Media and information
Imagine that you are living in China on a communal farm or during the Tiananmen Square protests. Write a letter home to your family describing your life. • Communal farm: What are your living arrangements like? What kind of work do you do? Do you get any reward? • Tiananmen Square: Why are you protesting? What are some people saying about the government? What were the events like during the army’s intervention? Letter