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A Wearable Wireless Sensor Platform for Interactive Dance Performances. Chulsung Park and Pai H. Chou Center for Embedded Computer Systems. Yicun Sun Department of Arts-Dance. University of California, Irvine PerCom 2006 Presented by Jeffrey. Outline. Abstract Introduction Related Work

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a wearable wireless sensor platform for interactive dance performances

A Wearable Wireless Sensor Platform for Interactive Dance Performances

Chulsung Park and Pai H. Chou

Center for Embedded Computer Systems

Yicun Sun

Department of Arts-Dance

University of California, Irvine

PerCom 2006

Presented by Jeffrey

NTUEE/nslab

outline
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

outline1
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

abstract
Abstract
  • Reports on recent development of a wearable wireless sensor platform
    • for interactive dance performances
  • At a fraction of a cubic-centimeter in volume
    • This platform is truly wearable and scalable in forming wireless networks
  • Integrated with a wide variety of different sensing devices
    • It is a real-time monitoring system for activities and physical conditions of the human body
  • Effectiveness of this platform is demonstrated with an interactive dance performance

NTUEE/nslab

outline2
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

introduction
Introduction
  • Interactive dance environment
    • Live dancer’s movements are tracked and used to steer the synthesis of musical, graphical, and other various special effects in real-time
  • Available platforms today are not truly wearable, scalable, or able to support high-level interactivity

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major contributions 1 4
Major Contributions (1/4)
  • Truly Wearable sensor platform
  • Eco
    • Ultra-compact and low power wireless sensor node
    • 648 mm3 without a battery
    • 720 mm3 with a battery
    • Smallest wireless sensor node in operation
  • Other wearable sensor platforms are at least 3 to 4 times larger

NTUEE/nslab

major contributions 2 4
Major Contributions (2/4)
  • Make Eco nodes form a scalable wireless network
  • Adopt ideas proposed for heterogeneous network architecture
  • Each dancer and sensor device can be uniquely identified
    • While multiple dancers wearing multiple sensing devices perform together

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major contributions 3 4
Major Contributions (3/4)
  • Novelty in multi-modal sensing
  • Can collect data from multiple different types of sensing devices simultaneously
  • Motion tracking on dancers
  • Reading their physiological signs such as heartbeat
  • Opens up brand new possibilities for choreographers
    • As new creative tools for enhancing their performance

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major contributions 4 4
Major Contributions (4/4)
  • Provides a seamless interface to Max/MSP and JITTER software packages using a wireless interface board
  • A choreographer can replace their current installation of interactive environment with proposed platform
    • Without any extra work on the software side

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outline3
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

related work
Related Work
  • Interactive dance performance
    • Use the data from tracking the motion of a dancer to steer the generation of musical or graphical effects in real time
  • Motion tracking technologies
    • Computer vision based
    • Embedded or wearable sensors based

NTUEE/nslab

wearable wireless sensing systems
Wearable Wireless Sensing Systems
  • Expressive Footware
    • A set of piezoelectric acceleration sensors are embedded into a pair of dancing shoes
    • 19.2Kbps radio

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sensor stack
Sensor Stack
  • Second generation Footware
    • 3-axial acceleration sensing
    • 3-axial angular velocity measurement
    • 115.2Kbps

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wireless inertial measurement system wims
Wireless Inertial Measurement System (WIMS)
  • Flexible PCB
    • 101010 mm3
    • Prone to breaking
    • Not suitable for mounting inertial sensors
    • Does not include a microcontroller, RF interface, and battery

NTUEE/nslab

max msp and jitter
Max/MSP and JITTER
  • Max/MSP
    • A graphical environment for music, audio, and multimedia
    • Max: for MIDI, I/O control, user interface, and timing objects
    • MSP: a set of audio processing objects
  • JITTER
    • A set of matrix data processing objects optimized for video and 3-D graphics

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outline4
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

platform design
Platform Design
  • Proposed wearable wireless sensor platform consists of three parts
    • wearable wireless sensor nodes
    • wireless data aggregators
    • wireless interface boards

NTUEE/nslab

platform design1
Platform Design

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wearable wireless sensor nodes
Wearable Wireless Sensor Nodes
  • Activities and physical conditions of a dancer are first sensed and digitized by a set of wireless sensor nodes that the dancer wears
  • Then, each sensor node wirelessly transmits its data to the data aggregator worn on the dancer’s waist.

NTUEE/nslab

wireless data aggregators
Wireless Data Aggregators
  • Data aggregator collects and packetizes these data and send them to the wireless interface board

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wireless interface boards
Wireless Interface Boards
  • Converts the received data into digital/analog output signals
    • feeds them to the MIDI I/O terminal, which generates MIDI signals
  • Taking these MIDI signals as inputs
    • Max, MSP and JITTER process them and synthesize musical and visual effects as programmed by a choreographer
    • Effects are sent to the front projector, speaker, and lamps and displayed

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scalability issue
Scalability Issue
  • Uses two different networks
    • A body network
    • An 802.11b Wi-Fi network
    • Similar to Intel’s heterogeneous network architecture
  • Enables proposed platform to simultaneously monitor the activities and physical conditions of multiple dancers
    • Without degradation as the number of dancers increases

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is a single network scalable
Is A Single Network Scalable?
  • NO!
  • Every sensor node on each sensor would directly transmit its sampled data to the interface board
  • A body network for each dancer
    • A set of wearable wireless sensor nodes
    • One data aggregator
    • Use 2.4GHz ISM band radio
    • Use TDMA-based MAC protocol
    • Maximum data rate: 250Kbps
    • Transmission power level: 0dBm

NTUEE/nslab

802 11b wi fi network
802.11b Wi-Fi Network
  • Formed by the data aggregators on dancers and theater equipment
  • Overlaid on the body networks
  • Each data aggregator is linked to the access point of the interface board using 802.11b CF wireless card
  • Theoretically, up to 256 data aggregators can be connected to the access point simultaneously
  • In practice, 10-16 is more like the proper number of data aggregators connected to one access point
    • To guarantee the required bandwidth

NTUEE/nslab

wearable wireless sensor node
Wearable Wireless Sensor Node
  • Built based on the design of Eco
  • Three variants of Eco
    • Wireless transmitter unit (WT)
    • Acceleration, temperature, and light sensing unit (ATLS)
    • Image and gyro sensing unit (IGS)

NTUEE/nslab

wireless transmitter unit wt
Wireless transmitter unit (WT)
  • Includes only a microcontroller and radio interface
    • With digital input/output and analog input interfaces
  • To connect to some big sensors
    • joint angle sensor
    • heartbeat sensor
    • infrared sensor
  • Turn on/off lanterns

NTUEE/nslab

wireless transmitter unit wt1
Wireless transmitter unit (WT)
  • nRF24E1
    • A 2.4GHz transceiver with an embedded 8051-compatible microcontroller (DW8051)
    • DW8051 has a 512Byte ROM, a 4KByte RAM, one SPI (3-wire) interface, and a 9-channel 12-bit AD converter
    • Transceiver uses a GFSK modulation scheme in the 2.4GHz ISM band
    • 125 different frequency channels that are 1MHz apart
  • A chip antenna
  • 32K EEPROM
  • Maximum RF output power: 0dBm
  • Maximum data rate: 1Mbps
  • Maximum power consumption: 28mA at 3V

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acceleration temperature and light sensing unit atls
Acceleration, temperature, and light sensing unit (ATLS)
  • Consists of
    • one 3-axial accelerometer (H34C)
      • A 3-axial accelerometer from Hitachi Metals
      • Acceleration measurement range is ±3g
      • It measures only 3.4 × 3.7 × 0.92 mm3 and consumes 0.36mA at 3V
    • one temperature sensor (embedded on H34C)
      • -20C to 65C
    • one light sensor (CdS photoresistor)
    • as well as what the WT unit has

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image and gyro sensing unit igs
Image and gyro sensing unit (IGS)
  • Built based on the Eco-Stick
    • a variant of the Eco
    • microcontroller and radio interface
    • has either an image sensor (VS6650) or a gyroscope (ADRS150)
  • VS6650
    • 1.0-megapixel SMIA Camera Module from STMicroelectronics
    • measures 9.5 × 9.5 × 7.6 mm3
    • consumes 30mA at 3V
    • interfaces with the nRF24E1 chip via the SPI port

NTUEE/nslab

image and gyro sensing unit igs1
Image and gyro sensing unit (IGS)
  • ADXRS150
    • a gyroscope from Analog Devices
    • measurement range is −150 to +150 degrees
    • current consumption of 13mA at 5V
    • measures 7 × 7 × 3.2 mm3
  • Equipped with TWO 40mAh Li-Polymer batteries

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wireless data aggregator
Wireless Data Aggregator
  • Consists of
    • An MSP430 16-bit microcontroller
    • An nRF2401A 2.4GHz transceiver
    • A WCF12 CompactFlash 802.11b card
  • 802.11b wireless card consumes a maximum of 250mA at 3.3V
    • Use a 700mAh Li-Polymer battery
    • To guarantee a minimum lifetime of one hour

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interface board
Interface Board
  • Consists of
    • An MC9S12NE64 16-bit microcontroller with a built-in fast Ethernet control
    • One RJ-45 connector
    • Two serial ports
    • Digital/analog signal I/O interfaces
  • Provides a seamless interface between proposed platform and Max/MSP/JITTER software
  • Receives TCP/IP packets from data aggregators
  • Outputs digital/analog output signals fed to MIDI I/O board
  • When Max/MSP/JITTER output signals
    • It takes these signals and makes a TCP/IP packet that contains a proper destination address and control message
    • Sends out packets to the data aggregators

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interface board1
Interface Board

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outline5
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

NTUEE/nslab

application example
Application Example
  • Dreams in the Forbidden City
    • Devised by Yicun Sun
    • A live dance performance in an interactive environment
    • Describes the dreams of five concubines of the emperor in the Forbidden City
    • Their dreams are to please the emperor

NTUEE/nslab

dreams in the forbidden city1
Dreams in the Forbidden City
  • According to the five dancers’ movement, the expression of the emperor varies
    • Sometimes the emperor punishes his concubines by thunder and lightning
    • Other times he expresses cheers by sweet music and bright light
  • All kinds of sound and visual effects are generated by a computer without any manual control

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improvements by our platform
Improvements by Our Platform
  • Eliminate wiring between the stage equipment and the Max I/O terminal

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outline6
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Platform Design
  • Application Example
  • Conclusions and Future Work

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conclusions
Conclusions
  • Propose a wearable wireless sensor platform for an interactive dance performance
  • Consists of
    • wearable wireless sensor nodes
    • data aggregators
    • wireless interface boards
  • Distinguishing features
    • Truly wearable
    • Highly scalable
    • Multi-modal sensing
    • Seamless interface

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future work
Future Work
  • Choreographing interactive dance performances that take full advantage of proposed platform
    • At least tens of dancers will be performing together
  • Images transmitted from the dancers’ ISG units will be used to synthesize graphical effects on the stage
  • Dancers’ heartbeats and body temperatures will be monitored and converted into different colors and beats to reflect the dancers’ conditions on the stage equipment

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my comments
My Comments
  • Strength
    • Very good hardware technology
    • Interesting and practical applications
      • Cooperation with other departments in NTU?
  • Weakness
    • Truly scalable?
    • Interference between wireless sensor nodes of different dancers when they get close?

NTUEE/nslab

questions
Questions?

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slide51
Eco
  • The sensor node is called Eco
    • A world record setter for being the smallest wireless sensor node to date.
    • Only 557mm3 in volume and 1.6 grams in weight
    • Designed to be worn on the limbs of pre-term infants to monitor their spontaneous movement in response to assisted exercises
    • Only 11% the volume of the smallest of the most popular commercial sensor node, the Mica2DOT from Crossbow.
    • Low Power Design Contest Award (another $2,825 in cash prize) at ISLPED 2004.

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heterogeneous sensor networks
Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
  • Ad hoc sensor network with a high bandwidth 802.11 mesh overlay network based on Intel XScale® technology

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