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Drill 11/28 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Drill 11/28

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  1. Drill 11/28 • Name 2 differences and 2 similarities between the English and American Bills of Rights.

  2. The Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment

  3. The roots of Modern Science • Heliocentric vs Geocentric • WHAT REVOLVES AROUND WHAT?

  4. The medieval view • Geocentric • The Earth is a stable body and the universe revolves around it • Used the bible and tradition to support this view

  5. Nicolaus Copernicus • In the early 1500’s he studied planetary movements for 25 years • Developed the HELIOCENTRIC view of the universe • How did the church react?

  6. Tycho Brahe • Danish astronomer • Made decades worth of mathematical observations • Died before they could be fully analyzed

  7. Johannes Kepler • Brahe’s assistant • Brilliant mathematician • Discovered laws of planetary motion

  8. Drill 12/3 • In what newsletter did Galileo publish his findings in 1610? • Why were Galileo’s findings so controversial?

  9. Galileo Galilei • Italian astronomer and scientist • Invented the modern telescope • Discovered laws regarding gravity and motion • In 1610 published the newsletter Starry Messenger

  10. The Church Reaction…….. Ehhhhhh, NO. Just NO. NO! NO!!! Cardinal Robert Bellarmie

  11. Psalm 104:5 - "[the LORD] set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." • Ecclesiastes 1:5 - "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc."[

  12. Galileo Faces an Inquisition • 1616, Roman authorities force him to renounce his claims • He is ordered not to publish it as FACT again

  13. 1632 • With the OK of Rome he publishes Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems

  14. 1632 • It was ordered by Pope Urban VIII • He wanted to put the issue to rest • He LIKED Galileo

  15. Whether it was intentional or not • Galileo CLEARLY favors his own views • The geocentric side is filled with contradictions • He uses the Pope’s own words against him • This angered the Pope and Urban VIII called for his inquisition

  16. 1633 • Under threat of torture he is forced to renounce his views • He is placed under house arrest until he dies in 1642

  17. Drill 11/30 • How did the renaissance and the age of exploration influence the scientific revolution?

  18. The Enlightenment

  19. The Philosophes • Reason • Nature • Happiness • Progress • Liberty

  20. Voltiare • The penname of François Marie Arouet • Poet, essayist, satirist • Viciously attacked France and the Church • Fled France, but continued to write

  21. Montesquieu • Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu • Aristocrat, Lawyer • Believed Britain was the best governed body • SEPARATION OF POWERS

  22. Rousseau • Jean Jacques Rousseau • Essayist

  23. Rousseau • “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” • All men were born free and society forces us into unjust laws • Wrote The Social Contract,1762

  24. Complete parts A+ B of the guided Reading • We will complete C in class tomorrow when we dig deeper into Locke and Hobbes

  25. Drill 12/3 • Who were the Philosophes? • How did they influence the various revolutions that would come later?

  26. Natural Law • The laws that men abide by that are given through nature • They exist everywhere because we all come from a natural state

  27. Social Contract Theory • Everyone starts with natural rights • We voluntarily give up some of those rights to maintain social order • The implied contract between a government and its citizens

  28. Thomas Hobbes • English Philosopher • Published Leviathan 1651 • Different concept of Natural Law and humanity

  29. Hobbes • In Leviathan • The natural state of man is wicked • Survival of the fittest • Man NEEDS a government to maintain order • He preferred an absolute Monarch

  30. John Locke • English Philosopher • Writer, Lawyer, philosopher • Two Treatises on Government 1688

  31. Locke • “Tabula Rasa” • Blank Slate • People are born clean, society creates ideals • Rights of LIFE, LIBERTY and PROPERTY

  32. Write a BCR for part C of your work from yesterday. • This will be collected

  33. Drill 12/4 • Explain the difference between Locke and Hobbes

  34. Thomas Hobbes • English Philosopher • Published Leviathan 1651 • Different concept of Natural Law and humanity

  35. Hobbes • In Leviathan • The natural state of man is wicked • Survival of the fittest • Man NEEDS a government to maintain order • He preferred an absolute Monarch

  36. John Locke • English Philosopher • Writer, Lawyer, philosopher • Two Treatises on Government 1688

  37. Locke • “Tabula Rasa” • Blank Slate • People are born clean, society creates ideals • Rights of LIFE, LIBERTY and PROPERTY

  38. Denis Diderot • French writer + Philosopher • Wrote The Encyclopedia • 1751-1766

  39. The Encyclopedia • It was exactly what it sounded like • A collection of articles from various authors • Authors like Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau • Plus many many others

  40. The Encyclopedia • 35 volumes • 75 thousand + articles • The first 28 were edited by Diderot himself

  41. The encyclopedia collected the many ideas of the enlightenment and placed them all in one spot • By 1757 subscription had grown to over 4,000 subscribers

  42. Government reaction • By 1757 The Encyclopedia was one of the most well-known books in France • It was filled with anti-establishment ideas • The government felt it was being produced by a band of rebels • Wanted the project ended

  43. Diderot flees • By this time Diderot, under threat of arrest and maybe death must flee France • He continues work on the texts in Switzerland and various other countries

  44. By the time of its completion it is one of the most popular series in Europe • Translated into English and German • Literally called “Encyclopedia fever”

  45. Drill 12/4 • What two art styles were prevalent during Enlightenment Era Europe

  46. The Enlightenment Through Art

  47. Baroque • Relating to a grand, ornate style • Music • Art • Architecture

  48. Architecture • The castle of Trier, Germany

  49. Baroque Architecture • LARGE scale • Ornamentation, sculpture, facades • Tall cielings

  50. Neoclassical • Relating to a simple elegant style reminiscent of the Greeks and Romans