Chapter 14 A New Industrial Age
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization • Used steam engine to drill for oil. • Made kerosene from the oil and gasoline as a byproduct. • Coal and iron deposits are found and steel is made from the iron by removing carbon. • Railroads, farm equipment and barbed wire were made from steel.
Inventions Promote Change • Thomas Alva Edison creates a new light bulb. • Made electricity safer and less expensive. • Electricity spurred the inventions of time-saving devices. • Christopher Sholes invents the typewriter and Alexander Graham Bell invents the Telephone.
The Age of the Railroads • Railroads influenced many facets of American life, town of Pullman and the personal lives of the country’s citizens. • Caused standard time zones to be set. • Influenced growth of towns and communities. • Led to widespread abuse because of amount of power railroad companies had.
Railroads Span Time and Space • Made western travel much easier. • Made a transcontinental railroad. • The Central Pacific Railroad employed Chinese Immigrants and The Union Pacific hired Irish immigrants. • Worked under extreme conditions. • Professor C. F. Dowd divided the world into 24 time zones.
Opportunities and Opportunists • Railroads caused the iron, coal, steel, lumber and glass industries to grow. • Isolated cities and towns grew because of new ways to get to them quickly. • Pullman, a town for the workers of George Pullman’s railcar factory, had people living under strict rules.
The grange and the Railroads • Grange was a farmers’ organization founded in 1867. • Granges demanded governmental control over the railroad industry. • Passed laws “to establish maximum freight ad passenger rates and prohibit discrimination”. • Failed but government did monitor the railroad companies
Carnegie’s Innovations • Carnegie invented new methods for making steel and predicting exact costs. • Vertical integration is a process in which he bought out his suppliers in order to control competing steel producers. • Horizontal Integration is a process where companies with similar products merge.
Social Darwinism and Business • Social Darwinism-Darwin’s theory of natural selection when it is applied to human society. The best suited will survive while the weak will die off. • There were 4,000 millionaires by this time after the civil war. • Many American’s believed in this theory because it showed that hard work would make anyone successful and that people are responsible for their own actions.
Fewer Control More • Many industrialists used merges to expand their business. • Holding companies are companies that have the sole purpose of buying out other companies. • Rockefeller’s standard oil Company sold oil at extremely low prices to turn his competitors out of business then hiked up the prices to get tons of money.
Labor Unions Emerge • Steel mills and other largely used companies had a seven day workweek and worked 12 hours or more. • Not entitled to vacation, sick leave, unemployment compensation, or reimbursement for injuries. • NLU (National Labor Union) was formed in 1866 by William H. Sylvis. • They concentrated on linking existing local unions.
Strikes Turn Violent • Many strikes turned deadly as workers attacked police forces. • Even after the violence and death none of the unions accomplished much and gave into their employers. • The industry leaders passed the Sherman Antitrust Act which allowed them to stop workers from striking. If the company said the strike or boycott hurt interstate trade then the government would issue an injunction.