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Leadership

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  1. Leadership • Lecture # 17

  2. Pete Rose on Leadership: • Some players you pat their butts, some you kick their butts, some players you leave alone.

  3. Power • Position Power • Personal Power

  4. Position Power • Legitimate (Traditional) Power

  5. Position Power • Reward Power

  6. Position Power • Coercive Power

  7. Position Power • Whatever the organization giveth, the organization can take away

  8. Personal Power • Expert Power Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA)

  9. Personal Power • Referent Power (Charisma)

  10. Personal Power • Referent Power (Charisma)

  11. Personal Power • You are the locus of this power, not your position • You can take this power with you to other organizations

  12. Leadership • Why do some people make better leaders than others? • Why is it helpful to organizations to identify leaders early?

  13. The Quest for Leadership Qualities…

  14. Three Approaches to Studying Leadership • Trait Approach • Behavioral Approach • Situational Approach

  15. Trait Approach • Aka the Great Man approach • looking for the Born Leader

  16. What Characteristics do Leaders Possess? • Intelligence (Knowledgeable) • Self-Confidence • Extroverted • Good Communicators

  17. But, these traits can be learned • For example, as one’s communication skill (a learned trait in itself) improves, one becomes more self-confident

  18. Continuing the Quest • Perhaps it’s not who a person is, but what a person does that matters…

  19. Behavioral Approach • Two dimensions of leader behavior were identified in multiple studies: • Task Orientation – Get the Job Done • Employee Orientation – Openness and friendliness of leader, concern for subordinates

  20. Blake & Mouton Grid • Included the two dimensions of leader behavior • Identified 5 distinguishable styles of leadership

  21. 5 Leadership Styles • 1,1 Impoverished or Laissez-Faire • 5,5 Middle of the Road or Organization Man • 1,9 Country Club • 9,1 Authoritarian or Task • 9,9 Team or Democratic

  22. Behavioral Approach • Seems to have answered which is the best style in general, but raises other questions, including: What style works best in particular situations?

  23. Situational or Contingency Approach • In what situations does a particular style work more effectively? • How do you identify one situation from another? • What are the essential characteristics of a situation?

  24. Fiedler and his associates • Developed a Contingency or Situational model of leadership • Identified four factors to consider when defining a situation

  25. Fiedler’s Model • Managerial Characteristics • Subordinate Characteristics • Task Characteristics • Organizational Characteristics

  26. Fiedler’s Model • Combined those four characteristics into three questions about a situation: • Leader-Member Relations: Good or Bad? • Task Structure: Structured or Unstructured? • Position Power of the Leader: Strong or Weak?

  27. Fiedler’s Model • Task • Task • Task • Employee • Employee • Employee • Task • Task

  28. Fiedler’s Model • In Very Certain situations, or Very Uncertain situations, a Task style seems to work best • In Moderately Certain situations, an Employee style seems to work best

  29. Fiedler’s Model • When things are quite clear, or very chaotic, people respond well to being told what to do. • Task Orientation • When the situation is moderate, people often need to be convinced or appealed to. • Employee Orientation

  30. Two Uses for Fiedler in Organizations • Find the right place (situation) for a manager’s leadership style

  31. Two Uses for Fiedler in Organizations • Provide additional training for the manager to better match his/her situation