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Word Formation . Part 1. Word formation. Both inflectional (or grammatical) e.g. plural suffix, genitive suffix, present or past participle etc. and derivational (or lexical) affixes e.g. un-, mis-, -ness , - ship, -hood are attached to roots.

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word formation1
Word formation
  • Both inflectional (or grammatical) e.g. plural suffix, genitive suffix, present or past participle etc. and derivational (or lexical) affixes e.g.un-, mis-, -ness, -ship, -hood are attached to roots.
  • Another kind of word formation is where more than one root is joined together (e.g. baby-sit). This is called compounding.
  • Conversion word formation is when a change of word class occurs without any affixation (e.g. skin, a verb derived from a noun, or input, a noun derived from a verb)
english word coinage
English Word Coinage
  • Compounds
  • Acronyms
  • Back-formations
  • Abbreviations
  • Eponyms
  • Blends
1 compounds
1. Compounds
  • Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word.
  • Examples:
    • Home + work  homework
    • Pick + pocket  pickpocket
note the meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts.
  • Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts.
  • Olive oil  oil made from olives.
  • Baby oil 

NOT oil made from babies

oil for babies

  • cathouse 

a house where men visit prostitutes

  • blue-movies 
  • blue-chip 
  • go-go 
2 compounding 1
2. Compounding (1)
  • Compounding (compounds): combine two or more free morphemes to form new words

N N N N

ADJ N NNN ADJN V N

V fire engine green house jump suit

P wall paper blue bird kill joy

book case N

text book P N

after thought

out patient

2 compounding 2
2. Compounding (2)

N

ADJ ADJADJ

P

ADJ ADJ ADJ

N ADJ ADJADJ P ADJ

nation-wide red - hot over ripe

sky blue far - fetched in grown

pitch black out spoken

out standing

2 compounding 3
2. Compounding (3)

N

ADJ V V

P

V

V V V V

N V ADJ V P V V V

Spoon-feed white wash out live blow dry

Steam-roller dry clean underestinatebreakdance

2 compounding 4
2. Compounding (4)

N N

N NN N

N NN NNN

dog food box stone age cave man