Download
word formation 1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Word Formation 1 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Word Formation 1

Word Formation 1

366 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Word Formation 1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Word Formation 1

  2. A beginner is learning English hard at school. One day, he bumped into a foreigner by accident in the street. He apologized to him at once, “I am sorry, sir.”      “I am sorry too.” the foreigner answered politely.     The boy, “I am sorry three.”     The foreigner was puzzled and asked,“What are you sorry for?”     He replied,“I am sorry five.”

  3. 词汇教学的重要性 词汇是语言的三大要素(语音、词汇、语法)之一,是语言的基本材料,其中又属词汇最为重要。词汇掌握的多少,是反映学生英语水平的标志之一。词汇是学好英语的基础,词汇关过不了,对语句的理解记忆就会很吃力,而不用说文章阅读和语法理解,因此学习英语必须首先突破词汇关。有一位语言学家说: “Without grammar, very little can be conveyed. Without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed。”

  4. 新课程标准对词汇量的要求 五级:理解和掌握1500-1600个单词和200-300    个习惯用语或固定搭配; 七级:学会使用2400-2500个单词和300-400个    习惯用语或固定搭配; 八级:学会使用3300个左右的单词和400-500个    习惯用语或固定搭配; 九级:学会使用4500个左右的单词和一定数量    的习惯用语或固定搭配。 中考 高中会考 高考 外语专业

  5. 英语构词法种类 英语构词法主要有三种: 合成、派生与转化。 另外缩写和简写也是构词法的一种。

  6. + book note + white snow + stand under + five forty + one every + town down 1. Compounding 合成 有两个或更多的词合成一个词,叫复合词 notebook 复合名词 snowwhite 复合形容词 understand 复合动词 forty-five 复合数词 everyone 复合代词 downtown 复合副词

  7. Parts of speech 词类 名词(noun) 代词(pronoun) 形容词(adjective) 副词(adverb) 动词(verb) 数词(numeral) 冠词(article) 介词(preposition) 连词(conjunctions) apple sun Beijing it me he you we clever good warm cold slowly quickly daily weekly go come think teach five one-third two-thirds a an the up down before after when where because Back

  8. + book note + room class + board black + house green + noon after + work over Compound nouns 复合名词 notebook n.+ n. classroom n.+ n. blackboard adj.+ n. greenhouse adv.+ n. afternoon adv.+ n. overwork adv.+ n. Back

  9. + white snow + wide world + working hard + going easy + hearted warm + sighted short Compound adjectives 复合形容词 snowwhite n. + adj. worldwide n. + adj. hardworking adj. + v-ing easy-going adj. + v-ing warmhearted adj. + n. + ed shortsighted adj. + n. + ed Back

  10. + stand under + come over Compound verbs 复合动词 understand adv. + v. overcome adv. + v. Back

  11. + town down + stairs down + heartedly whole Compound adverbs 复合副词 downtown adv. + n. downstairs adv. + n. wholeheartedly adv. + adv.

  12. 2. Derivation 派生 通过在词根 (root)上加前缀(prefix)或者后缀(suffix) 构成一个新词, 叫派生词。 root prefix happy – unhappy develop – development root suffix

  13. Prefix 前缀 一般只引起意思上的变化而不造成词类的变化,只有少数能引起词类的变化。 happy – unhappy understand – misunderstand largeadj. – enlargev.

  14. Parts of speech 词类 名词(noun) 代词(pronoun) 形容词(adjective) 副词(adverb) 动词(verb) 数词(numeral) 冠词(article) 介词(preposition) 连词(conjunctions) apple sun Beijing it me he you we clever good warm cold slowly quickly daily weekly go come think teach five one-third two-thirds a an the up down before after when where because Back

  15. 常见的前缀 a. 表示否定的前缀: un– unfair, unhappy non– nonsmoker(常用在n. adj. adv. 前) in– inactive (常用在adj.后) dis– disagree, disappear, dislike im– impolite, impossible (用在b,p,m 开头的词前) b. 表示错误或失误的前缀: mis – misunderstand, misdirect(误导)

  16. c. 表示两个,双边的前缀: bi – bicolor ( 双色的), bicycle d. 表示相互, 交互, 在一起的前缀 inter – interview, international, internet e. 表示又,再,重新的前缀 re – review, return, rewrite f. 表示远的前缀 tele – telephone, television

  17. Suffix 后缀 一般只引起词性上的变化而不造成意思的变化。 care – careful n. adj. work – worker v. adj.

  18. 常见的后缀 n. 1. v. -tion education invitation prediction -ment movement governmentjudgment - ion / sion / tion / ation actionpronunciationinvitation decisionintention -or visitor sailor actor -er teacher worker runner singer

  19. What are their jobs? singer dancer

  20. -ist ( 人, 名词后缀) Science – scientist terror – terrorist -ress(表示女性) actor –actresswaiter – waitress

  21. actress actor

  22. waiter waitress host hostess prince princess manager manageress headmaster headmistress

  23. Please match the words below to the suffixes to form nouns. +ant + er +or +ist +ent Verb Suffixes Noun paint visit assist study type assistant painter visitor typist student

  24. Noun Suffixes Noun • economy • music • photograph ian ist er musician economist photographer

  25. Adjective Noun Suffixes • Special • electric electrician ian ist specialist

  26. n. 2. adj. -ness good –goodness happy –happiness busy – business care – careless – carelessness kind- kindness -ity able – ability possible – possibility

  27. v. 3. n. /adj. -ify: beauty-beautify, simple--simplify -ize: realize -en: quicken, sharpen , widen

  28. adj. 4. n. -y: -ish: -some: -ous: -ful: -less: windy rainy healthy funny sunny foolish childish handsome troublesome dangerous humorous helpful careful peaceful colorful homelesshelplesscareless useless -al: traditional international natural -ly: friendly monthly lonely

  29. adj. 5. v. -ed surprised bored excited relaxed interested -ing surprising boring exciting relaxing interesting outstanding -able enjoyable horrible terrible

  30. 5. adv. 后缀 -ly suddenly quickly slowly certainly nearly successfully -ward/wards backwards forwards downwards upwards northward southward eastward westward

  31. Practice: 按括号内的要求改写下列单词 rain(形容词) ________ agree(反义)__________ nation(形容词)_______ farm(人)__________ recent(副词)________ friend(形容词)________ hope(形容词)_______ back(形容词)_________ visit(名词)__________ home(形容词) ________ eight(序数词)________ true(名词)___________ America(形容词)_______ China(形容词)________ rainy disagree farmer national friendly recently backwards hopeful visitor homeless eighth truth American Chinese

  32. 形容词比较等级形式变化 单音节词末尾加-er,-est slow – slower – the slowest fast – faster – the fastest 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有一个辅音字母, 须先双写这个辅音字母,再加-er,-est big – bigger – the biggest 少数以-y,-er,ow,-ble结尾的双音节词, 末尾加-er,-est。 clever – cleverer – the cleverest

  33. 形容词比较等级形式变化 以-y结尾的词,如-y前是辅音字母, 则变y为-i,再加-er和-est。 dry – drier - the driest 其它双音节和多音节词皆在前面加单词more 和most。 beautiful – more beautiful – the most beautiful

  34. higher high the highest

  35. thin thinner the thinnest popular morepopular the mostpopular

  36. heavy heavier the heaviest

  37. 形容词与副词的比较级与最高级 Summary tall fat big easy slowly quickly beautiful taller the tallest fatter the fattest biggerthe biggest easierthe easiest more slowly themost slowly more quickly the most quickly more beautiful the most beautiful

  38. 不规则变化 good well bad badly many much little far better the best worse the worst more the most less the least farther the farthest further the furthest

  39. 3. Conversion 转化 由一种词类转化为另一种词类。 单词转化后的意义往往与之前的意义联系密切. water n.水 ------ water vt.浇水 常见的转化形式: 动词 --- 名词 名词 --- 动词 形容词---动词

  40. n. 1. v. stop watch look walk love v.停止n.车站 v.观看n.手表 v.看n.看have a look v.散步,走n. 散步take a walk v.爱n.爱your love

  41. v. 2. n. hand seat nurse oil time show n.手vt.上交 n.座位vt.坐 n.护士vt.护理 n.油 vt.上油 n.时间vt.定时,测时 n.展示,秀vt. 表演,秀

  42. v. 3. adj. openadj.开着的v.开 cleanadj.清洁的v.打扫 slowadj.慢的v.放慢

  43. 5. 缩写和简写 缩写和简写(也被称为截断法或缩短法)主要采取: “截头”,“去尾”或者 “既截头又去尾”的方法生成新词. telephone – phone airplane– plane laboratory – lab mathematics – math advertisement – ad examination – exam Identification – IDkilogram – kilo

  44. 另外还有许多缩写词是由各个单词的首字母组成.另外还有许多缩写词是由各个单词的首字母组成. CD CCTV NBA UFO UN USA ( compact disk) ( China Central Television) (National Basketball Association) ( unidentified flying object) ( United Nations) ( United States of America)

  45. 艾宾浩斯 遗忘曲线 记忆周期 第一个 第二个 第三个 第四个 第五个 第六个 第七个 第八个 5 min 30 min 12 hours 1 day 2 days 4 days 7 days 15 days