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The Development of the Salford Workload Balancing Model / Process. Grahame S Cooper University of Salford. Discussions, Discussions,. Time getting on - pragmatism Research: Carry on using existing method from TIME RI Research rating * 10 ... (“Just for now.”) Management activities

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the development of the salford workload balancing model process

The Development of the Salford Workload Balancing Model / Process

Grahame S Cooper

University of Salford

discussions discussions
Discussions, Discussions, ...
  • Time getting on - pragmatism
  • Research:
    • Carry on using existing method from TIME RI
    • Research rating * 10 ... (“Just for now.”)
  • Management activities
    • Handled by individual Schools
    • Guidance on Faculty aspects of some roles
  • Commercial & other work (AE)
    • Handled as individual activities
discussions focus on teaching
... Discussions, Focus on Teaching
  • Contact hours V credits & student numbers
    • Traditions (Religion?)
    • Encourage efficiency and effectiveness
  • Teaching weighted by level?
    • “Final year should be worth more!”
    • “First year should be worth more!”
  • “Core and margin” approaches
    • Balance (Modules, Credits & Student Numbers)
    • Linear or non-linear variation
    • Variability: Some topics more intense than others
credits student numbers
Credits & Student Numbers
  • First approximation to module workloads.
  • Quantifiable variables identified:
    • Credits (C), Student Numbers (N)
  • Workload = W0 + WC*C + WN*N + WCN*C*N
    • To first order. (Linear variation assumed)
  • Assumption (reasonable approximation):
    • double Credits  double Workload
    • Implies: W0 = WN = 0
  • Formula adopted:(Initial) Workload = WC*C + WCN*C*N
estimating actual numbers
Estimating Actual Numbers
  • Many trial calculations done.
    • 1600 hour year assumed.
    • Various teaching styles looked at.
    • Estimates from all schools (est. hours worked):

(c+s)/16

teaching norms calculated
Teaching “Norms” Calculated
  • “Standard Lecture Course”
    • Credits factor ~ 0.4 to 0.7 (mean: 0.6)
    • Students factor ~ 0.002 to 0.008 (mean: 0.006)
  • “Intensive Lecture Course”
    • Credits factor ~ 0.2 to 0.65 (mean: 0.5)
    • Students factor ~ 0.005 to 0.017 (mean: 0.013)
  • Other areas looked at:
    • MSc credits result in 1.5 x effort
    • Dissertations
    • Labs and team projects
credit student based calculation

40 Credits

0

20 Credits

20

40

60

80

100

10 Credits

120

140

160

180

Student Numbers

Credit & Student Based Calculation
how prescriptive
How Prescriptive?
  • Even roles with the same name are different in different Schools.
  • Different demands of subject areas
    • Between Schools; Within Schools
  • Different development priorities
    • Research-active / less research active, etc
  • Schools have a high degree of freedom within the common model
    • (Everything in spreadsheet configurable.)
  • Other forces may bring balance in Faculty/University. (See later).
leave room for common sense

Student

Number

Initial

Figure

Adjustment

Actual

Figure

Credits

Explicitly stated academic grounds.

… leave room for common sense
  • Calculation gives initial estimate only
  • Some factors not easily quantifiable
history principles summary

Staff

Nichola

George

Edgar

Mary

Alice

Fred

Activities

“Effort”

18

. . .

. . .

13

13

Course tutor

. . .

. . .

Module 1.2 - Knitting

14

9

5

. . .

. . .

History / Principles - Summary
  • Distribute and sumapproach
  • Teaching: Standard forfirst approximations
  • Administrative activities: percentage of workload with consensus of school and sight of allocations in other schools
  • Research – percentage of time based on simple assessment of level of individual’s performance
  • Discretion by Head of School over all parameters
  • Mechanisms in place for activity costing& TR
    • But main emphasis on workload balancing