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  2. Lifeis aPROCESSESSAY(cognitive & social development)

  3. PROCESS ESSAY *BRIEF DEFINITION: • the careful, detailed explanation of a particular procedure *TYPES of PROCESS-ANALYSIS: • DIRECTIVE: how to perform a task • *you will write this type of process essay • how to change of flat tire • INFORMATIVE: explain how something works • how the gulf stream works


  5. Process Essay VSFirst 3 Essays

  6. PROCESS ESSAY vs. FIRST ESSAYS *DESCRIPTIVE: • dominant impression • sense details with similes (to support DI) • arranged spatially • pan like a camera

  7. PROCESS ESSAY vs. FIRST ESSAYS *ILLUSTRATIVE: • reasons, proof, examples • supported by stats, anecdotes, instances • arranged logically • emphatic order—save the best for last

  8. PROCESS ESSAY vs. FIRST ESSAYS *NARRATIVE: • narrative details of a moralistic story • arranged chronologically • linear time sequence—beginning, middle, end

  9. PROCESS ESSAY vs. FIRST ESSAYS *PROCESS-ANALYSIS ESSAY: • detailed steps in a process • arranged chronologically • step by step by step • use description, narration, illustration • use transitions between steps • AND…..

  10. YOU, YOU, YOU * The Process Essay is the only one in which you are directly addressing the reader, so get all the you’s out of your system now. • you, you, you, you, you • “you are” • “you’re” is NOT allowed (no contractions) • “UR” is NOT allowed (no text-messaging lingo) • “your” is allowed

  11. POV “YOU” • 2ND-person POV • directly addressing the reader “I” • 1st-person POV (*more informational process essay) • speaking from personal experience (*more Narrative) “YOU” with “I” (*recommendation*) • directly addressing the reader (“YOU”) • offering personal examples for illustration (“I”) • “For example, I prefer to add my fabric softener at the end of the third cycle.”


  13. INTRODUCTION **SCENARIO: • Create a context for this process • What situation would dictate the reader needing to know how to perform this task? • Why should the reader know how to do this activity? • purpose: answer the “so what?!” factor

  14. INTRODUCTION *OVERVIEW: Now that you have gained our interest and created a need by virtue of the scenario, now tell us exactly what we are in for in an overview of the entire process— • How many steps? • What is the difficulty level? • How long should it take? • Divide into recognizable parts • Describe the result (sense details; “After following my easy, five-step process, you will have safely, properly changed your flat tire.”)

  15. INTRODUCTION **PURPOSE STATEMENT: • like a thesis statement • what essay will concern • why readers should do • combine “overview” with your purpose to get a thesis statement: purpose: answer the “so what?!” factor In six easy steps that should take you approximately ten minutes, you can create a new, exciting, flattering look for yourself.

  16. INTRODUCTION *PURPOSE STATEMENT* **DO NOT ANNOUNCE: • Rather than “I am going to tell you how to make this” OR “In this essay I will show you how,” • Write “If you follow this easy six-step process, you will be able to create…”.

  17. INTRODUCTION *EXAMPLES OF CREATING A SCENARIO & INTRODUCING THE TOPIC: • 1) Have you ever been driving home late at night on a dark, deserted road out of cell phone range when you felt the car pulling sharply to one side and you heard the unmistakable thumping sound of a flat tire? • BODY’s 1st sentence: The first step in changing a tire is to….

  18. INTRODUCTION *EXAMPLES OF CREATING A SCENARIO & INTRODUCING THE TOPIC: • 2) Girls, are you tired of being seen as only sex objects? OR Feminism is dead, and women are now, more than ever, seen as simply sex objects. Girls, if that is how they are going to treat us, then we should use it to our advantage. One of the best instances to use, as Mama always said, “the gifts th’ Good Lord gave ya” is when you are pulled over by a police officer for a moving violation. I have three simple steps for getting out of a speeding ticket. (*from a student essay*) • BODY’s 1st sentence: The first step in getting out of a speeding ticket is to….

  19. BODY

  20. BODY *COHERENCE: • *CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER • *TRANSITIONS • first, then, next, • * “First, get the….” AND “Next, use the…” (vs.) “The first step is to…” AND “The next task involves…” • *SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS • after, before

  21. BODY: Transitions

  22. BODY: Transitions I. COHERENCE: • In the end, you want your essay to be a unified whole--a strong link chain, if you will.  Coherence, the technical term for this chain effect, points to not only the logical flow of ideas, but also the interconnectedness of ideas. In other words, coherence measures how well the ideas relate to each other.  This is where transitions come in:  they help build coherence.

  23. BODY: Transitions II. NO SENTENCE IS AN ISLAND. • Incoherent writing is characterized by short, choppy, unrelated sentences.  The writer has not demonstrated any relationships between ideas:  each desert-island-sentence floats in the ocean-paragraph with no bridge connecting any of them.  Consequently, just like someone stranded on an island, the idea soon shrivels and dies.

  24. BODY: Transitions • Transitions are the bridges between sentences that connect ideas and build a unified paragraph.  Some of the relationships they show include cause or effect, comparison or contrast, emphasis, sequence, and summary.   

  25. BODY: Transitions • When each paragraph becomes a cohesive whole, then we use transitions to connect each of them, too.  In order to build a larger point throughout the essay, we can employ transitions between paragraphs to reference, contrast, or continue a previous idea.

  26. BODY: Transitions • Thus, the final essay represents a series of associations, of relationships, of links--of bridges--between ideas.  Because of this interconnectedness, the writer's thesis is logical, sound, and coherent, and the reader can easily follow the course of the argument, crossing from one point to another.

  27. BODY: Transitions • To carry this metaphor to its (merciful) conclusion:  transitions provide the valuable infrastructure necessary for a reader to travel uninterruptedly between each of the island-states (ideas), and the final unified essay created with them has become like a centralized form of government uniting a group of island-states under one flag (thesis, argument, point).

  28. BODY: Transitions III. LINK: • Transitions provide links between the following:   • SENTENCES:  Also, the temperature of the oven must be set on high to achieve this goal. • PARAGRAPHS: Another reason I dislike Mondays involves highway traffic. • SECTIONS:  As noted in the previous chapter, the theme of equivocation dominates Shakespeare's Macbeth.

  29. BODY: Transitions IV. FORMS: • Transitions often come in the following forms:  • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:  since, because, if, when, although • COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:  and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so • PREPOSITIONS:  after, during, behind, beyond, during • ADVERBS:  once, never, always, frequently

  30. BODY: Transitions V. Transitions for the Process-Analysis Essay: Time and Sequence/Order • First, second, third • Next, then, finally, lastly • After, afterwards, following, • At this time, at this point • Simultaneously, concurrently • Subsequently, while, meanwhile • When, during, immediately, now, later, in the future, earlier, sometimes, always, never, whenever, once

  31. BODY: Transitions * Examples of transitions in a process essay: 1) First, pull off the road a safe distance from any possible traffic, and park on a flat surface. 2) Next, put the car in park and put on your emergency brake. 3) Then, after you activate your four-ways, you must gather all the necessary equipment, such as a flash light, crow bar, jack, and, of course, spare tire. All these items should be located in your trunk.

  32. BODY: Transitions • The latter sentence actually employs 2 chronological transitions: “then” and an introductory subordinate clause that begins with “after.” While both indicate time, the second allows you to put 2 steps into 1 sentence, and it tells you the order these 2 steps are to be performed. • Also, you noticed that these transitions appeared at the start of their sentences. Typically, this is good practice, for it enumerates each step and makes it easier for the reader to follow along. However, their position can be as fluid as that of most adverbs: • Pull off the road first, at a safe distance from traffic, and park on a flat surface.

  33. BODY: Transitions VI. Pitfalls of These Transitions: 1) The List: your essay resembles a recipe card on which your steps are numerically listed. • 1) • 2) • 3) 2) The Ad Naseam: you abuse the sequential transitions. “First, second, third, …twenty-third!” 3) The M*A*S*H Mistake: improper chronology

  34. M*A*S*H: “The Army-Navy Game” • Set-up: An unexploded shell lands in the middle of the compound, and the surgeons have to disarm the weapon. Henry, the commanding officer, reads directions from behind the cover of mattresses to the two surgeons. Trapper and Hawkeye are the two surgeons who have to “operate” on the bomb. At this point, they have successfully removed the access panel and are now at the infamous wire-cutting stage.

  35. M*A*S*H: “The Army-Navy Game” • HENRY: "And carefully cut the wires to the fuse at the head.” • NARRATOR: Trapper cuts the wire. • HENRY: "But first remove the fuse.“ • NARRATOR: Everyone exchanges panicked looks; Trapper listens to the bomb with a stethoscope. • TRAPPER: "Psst. Psst.” • HAWKEYE: "You spring a leak?“ • TRAPPER: "It stopped ticking.” • HAWKEYE: "Let's get the hell out of here. We've only got 2 and a half minutes, maybe."

  36. M*A*S*H: “The Army-Navy Game” BOOM! Luckily, it is only a CIA propaganda bomb.

  37. BODY *STEP-BY-STEP: • assume nothing • presume your audience=NOVICES • reader knows nothing about your topic • reader has never performed this task before • DIRECTIVE (how-to, technical writing) vs/ INFORMATIVE (close to narrative)

  38. BODY *THIS IS AN ESSAY, SO… • *NO LISTS* • *NO RECIPES (keep in essay format) • *do not forget the ARTICLES (a, an, the) • *do not forget the INTRODUCTION & CONCLUSION paragraphs

  39. BODY *DETAILS: • * STEP #1: gather all materials 1st (items should NOT just magically appear in the middle of the process) • * “HOW EXACTLY” (don’t skip over steps; the devil is in the details) • use DESCRIPTIVE DETAILS • since this is not necessarily a 5-paragraph essay, group steps into related PHASES/STAGES

  40. BODY *FLAVOR: • make PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS or PREFERENCES (if no specific brand/flavor is required) (i.e., amount of salt) • make TIPS (better use a pot holder) • give SPECIFIC INSTANCE if “it depends” • briefly explain the REASON for a step if it is not obvious (do this to prevent a mess)

  41. BODY *GRAMMAR: • spell “INGREDIENTS” correctly • no “THINGS” (steps, tasks) (items, utensils) • 350 degrees (not the symbol for degrees) • medium-sized pan (hyphen, -ed) • “THEN”=not a conjunction (use “, and then”) • COMMAS (“Introductory subordinate clause,”) (between two I.C. joined by a C.C.) • COLONS (“First, gather the following ingredients: milk, sugar, and flour.”)


  43. CONCLUSION *CONSIDER THE PROCESS AS A WHOLE: • repeat/reference the PURPOSE of your process (why did you tell us how to do this) (scenario) • Process-as-a-whole: • #/difficulty of steps • *total TIME of process • *describe the FINISHED PRODUCT (smells, taste, sight, feel, sound) • CLINCHER SENTENCE


  45. TOPICS related to cognitive & social development

  46. TOPIC PROMPTS *PERSONAL PROTECTION: • How to handle inappropriate and/or unwanted sexual advances at work, school, social setting • How to defend yourself if attacked • How to determine that you are in and/or how to leave an abusive relationship • How to catch your significant other cheating • How to get a PFA • How to win a custody battle

  47. TOPIC PROMPTS *PERSONAL IMPROVEMENT: • How to quit smoking • How to determine that you have a drug/alcohol problem AND how get help with it • How to deal with the death of a loved one • How to start over • How to begin a diet, exercise regiment • How to train for your first 5k, 5-miler… • How to perform a basic dance step • How to find a new apartment/house

  48. TOPIC PROMPTS *PERSONAL MAKE-OVER: • How to give yourself a manicure, pedicure • How to prepare a special bubble bath, facial • How properly to wax, tan • How to cut, treat, wash, perm, highlight your hair • How to have a tattoo removed • How to select the best plastic surgeon for your medicallynecessary condition • How to buy a used or new car

  49. TOPIC PROMPTS *PERSONAL EDIFICATION: • Take Notes • Study • Prepare for a Test, Mid-Term or Final Exam • Prepare for a Job Interview • Create a RÉSUMÉ • Deal with Stress (in a healthy manner) • Deal with a Death in the Family (and school)