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INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT. J.JAYARAMAN CENTRE FOR AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DESIGN ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY. STUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION.

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introduction to product and process development
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

J.JAYARAMAN

CENTRE FOR AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DESIGN

ENGINEERING

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY

stucture of the presentation
STUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION

CONCEPTS : PRODUCT , PROCESS, INTEGRATED PRODUCT,

INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESSES

WHY AND WHEN: INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

BENEFITS OF IPPD

WHAT IS IPPD : DoD’s DEFINITION OF IPPD

5 PRINCIPLES OF IPPD

THE TEN TENETS OF IPPD

GENERAL PNICIPLES OF IPPD

INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM

KEY CONCEPTS OF IPT

HOW IPPD : IMPLEMENTING IPPD

TOOLS OF IPPD

CONCLUSION

product and process
PRODUCT AND PROCESS
  • PRODUCT:
  • -IS WHAT IS DELIVERED TO THE CUSTOMER e.g.
  • HARDWARE, SOFRTWARE, SERVICES, TRAINING
  • -IT IS THE PHYSICAL HIERARCHY OF THE SYSTEM OR
  • PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE
  • - IS ALWAYS ACCOMPANIED BY A SPECIFICATION
  • PROCESS :

- MAKES THE PRODUCT POSSIBLE

- IT IS AN ACTIVITY OR GROUP OF ACTIVITIES THAT TAKES

AN INPUT ADDS VALUE TO IT TO GET AN OUTPUT FOR AN

INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL CUSTOMER e.g.

DESIGN, MANUFACTURING, TEST& EVALUATION, LOGISTICS

3 types of processes
3 TYPES OF PROCESSES
  • TOP LEVEL : FUNCTIONAL. OVERARCHING PROCESS SUCH AS SYTEMS ENGINEERING, TEST AND EVALUATION
  • DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES : ARE PROCESSES THAT FACILITATE MAKING OF A PRODUCT. THESE PROCESSES ARE NOT DELIVERED TO THE CUSTOMER- INCLUDE INTEGRATION, PRODUCTION, COMPUTER SUPPORT, MODELLING AND SIMULATION
  • DELIVERABLE PROCESSES : CAN BE THE PRODUCT OR PROCESS TO SUPPORT THE PRODUCT- INCLUDES SUPPORT, TRAINING, MAINTENANCE
integrated product
INTEGRATED PRODUCT

REALISES THAT:

-THE WHOLE IS MORE THAN THE SUM OF THE PARTS

-WHAT IS BEST FOR THE SUBSYSTEM

(OR COMPONENTS) IS NOT NECESSARILY THE BEST

FOR OVERALL SYSTEM OR VICE-VERSA

integrated product and process
INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS

BECAUSE OF THE LIMITED TIME AVAILABLE TO BRING A PRODUCT TO THE MARKET MUCH OF THE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES DOWNSTREAM FROM DESIGN ( MANUFACTURING, TESTING, DISTRIBUTION etc. ) OCCURS PRIOR TO THE COMPLETION OF FINAL ENGINEERING DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATION. THIS RESULTS IN THE CONCURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRODUCT AND THE PROCESS

slide8

ADE

ADE

ASSET

ASSET

competitiveness
COMPETITIVENESS
  • THE THREE ELEMENTS OF COMPETITIVENESS ARE:
  • TIMELINESS: CAN THE PRODUCT BE DELIVERED JUST IN TIME DEMANDED BY THE CUSTOMER
  • QUALITY: WILL THE PRODUCT WORK AS WELL AS INTENDED
  • AFFORDABILITY: WILL THE CUSTOMERS WISH TO BUY THE PRODUCT

TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE WE MUST DESIGN FOR VALUE

benefits of ippd
BENEFITS OF IPPD
  • REDUCED TIME TO FIELD SYSTEMS
  • REDUCED SYSTEM COST
  • IMPROVED QUALITY
  • PROGRAMMES THAT ARE EASIER TO MANAGE
as a result of ippd
AS A RESULT OF IPPD

IN A FIGHTER AIRCRAFT PROGRAMME

10% REDUCTION IN DEVELOPMENT COSTS

50% REDUCTION IN ENGINEERING CHANGE PROPOSALS

50% REDUCED REWORK/ REPAIR/ SCRAP

IN A NAVAL SYSTEM PROGRAM

40% REDUCED MANUFACTURING COSTS

25% REDUCED LIFE CYCLE COSTS

IN A MAJOR NAVY PROGRAM FOLLOWING BOEING 777 FOOTSTEPS

REDUCED CYCLE TIME AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS

boeing 777 ippd success story
BOEING 777- IPPD SUCCESS STORY
  • BOEING 777 AIRCRFT IS HERALDED IN THE US AS AN UNPARALLED SUCCESS IN ADVANCED CAD/CAM, IPPD & USE OF SIMULATION.
  • IT IS STILL UNDETERMINED AS TO WHEN BOEING WILL RECOUP IT’S MASSIVE FINANCIAL INVESTMENT
slide14

A GENERIC IPPD

ITERATIVE PROCESS

definition of ippd
DEFINITION OF IPPD
  • DOD’S DEFINITION
  • A MANAGEMENT PROCESS THAT INTEGRATES ALL ACTIVITIES FROM CONCEPT THROUGH PRODUCTION, FIELD SUPPORT USING A MULTIFUNCTIONAL TEAM TO SIMULTANEOUSLY OPTIMISE THE PRODUCT AND IT’S MANUFACTURING AND SUSTAINMENT PROCESS TO MEET COST AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
slide16
IPPD
  • IPPD IS SOMETIMES CALLED IPD
  • IPPD IS A MANAGEMENT APPROACH
  • IPPD IS NOT A SET OF STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED
  • IPPD HAS NO SINGLE SOLUTION OR IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
  • IPPD HAS IT’S ROOTS IN INTEGRATED DESIGN AND PRODUCTION PRACTICE , CONCURRENT ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • IT IS PERFORMANCE DRIVEN NOT PROCESS DRIVEN
  • APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROCESS IS FUNDAMENTAL TO IPPD
5 principles of ippd
5 PRINCIPLES OF IPPD

5

  • STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT AND CUSTOMER FOCUS
  • CONCURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCT AND PROCESSES
  • EARLY AND CONTINUOUS LIFE CYCLE PLANNING
  • PROACTIVE IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK
  • MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY FOR OPTIMISATION AND USE OF CONTRACTOR APPROACHES
the ten tenets of ippd
THE TEN TENETS OF IPPD
  • CUSTOMER FOCUS
  • CONCURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES
  • EARLY AND CONTINUOUS LIFE CYCLE PLANNING
  • MAXIMISE FLEXIBILITY FOR OPTIMISATION AND USE OF CONTRACTOR APPROACHES
  • ENCOURAGE ROBUST DESIGN AND IMPROVED PROCESS CAPABILITY
  • EVENT DRIVEN SCHEDULING
  • MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM WORK
the ten tenets of ippd1
THE TEN TENETS OF IPPD
  • EMPOWERMENT
  • SEAMLESS MANAGEMENT TOOLS
  • PROACTIVE IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK
slide20

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS

Translate Customer Requirement Level 0 system specification document

Mission Need Statement Operational Requirement Document

Prepare integrated Master schedule define TPMs IMS doc. TPMs

Prepare Integrated Master Plan Event driven IMP doc

Prepare SOWs SOW Doc

Define Core Program Key Events

Prepare WBS

WBS doc

Allocate Resources Organisation (People) Funds Time

Track and execute program

Specification tree that follows Product BreakOUT

Outline programme Product broken down to 2 levels below System level

ESTABLISH AN INTGD. MGMT. FRAMEWORK

OUTLINING THE PROGRAMME

Planning the Program

General Principles of IPPD

key features of ippd
KEY FEATURES OF IPPD
  • PRODUCT ORIENTATION: PRODUCTS DICTATE THE ULTIMATE SUCCESS OF THE ORGANISATION IN THE EYES OF THE CUSTOMER
  • CROSS FUNCTIONAL TEAMING: EFFECTIVE TEAMING BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL REPS. INTELLIGENT DECISIONS BASED ON COMBINED EFFORT OF ENGG. PRODN. LOGISTICS, PGMME. MGMT.,CONTRACTING, FINANCIAL MGMT., SUSTAINMENT,OPS., & OTHER DISCIPLINES
  • EMPOWERMENT:
  • GIVE REQUISITE AUTHORITY AND ESPONSIBILITY
  • CONTD.
key features of ippd1
KEY FEATURES OF IPPD
  • UPFRONT PLANNING: DELIBERATE UPFRONT PLANNING EARLY IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCE. EVENT BASED PLANNING
implementing ippd
IMPLEMENTING IPPD
  • CULTURAL CHANGE: INTEGRATED DECISION MAKING , EMPOWERMENT
  • FRAMEWORK: IN NEW ACQUISITION THE FRAMEWORK IS ESTABLISHED IN THE RFP
  • IT’S IMPLEMENTATION IS PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEPENDENT
integrated product team
INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM
  • THE PROCESS SIDE OF THE EQUATION INCLUDES ALL THE INDIVIDUALS ADDING VALUE TO THE PRODUCT. THESE INDIVIDUALS ARE MULTIFUNCTIONAL IPT’S
key concepts of ipt
KEY CONCEPTS OF IPT
  • HIGH PREMIUM ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
  • TEAM LEADERS ARE KEY
  • CHECKS AND BALANCES PROVIDED BY TECHNICAL CONSCIENCE
  • STRONG TEAM CULTURE
  • INDIVIDUALS EMPOWERED WITHIN CLEARLY DEFINED ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
concurrent engineering techniques and benifits
CONCURRENT ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES AND BENIFITS

AEROSPACE COMPANY AIRCAFT PROGRAM BENEFITS TECHNIQUES

BOEING COMPANY 777 50%REDUCTION IN ENGINEERING IPT, CI, SI, DPD

CHANGES DUE TO DESIGN ERRORS DPA, DFX, CIM

SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN DEFECTS

THAT REACHED THE FACTORY

MCDONNEL DOUGLAS C-17 SAVED $68m DUE TO COMMON ATE IPT, CI, SI, DFX

REDUCED NO. OF PARTS AND FASTENERS TQM, LM, QFD

ON CARGO DOOR ASSY.

F-15F FUSELAGE FORMERS 38% FEWER IPT, SI, CI, CIM,

PARTS, 49% FEWER FASTENERS, 45% FEWER DPD, DFX,TQM

FASTENER TYPES, 55%FEWER FAB. & ASSY. TOOLS, QFD

75% LESS ASSY TIME, 29% REDUCTION IN DEFECTS

F/A-18E/F 33% FEWER PARTS (4400PARTS,FEWER FASTENERS) IPT, SI, CI, CIM

1500 LB UNDER WEIGHT, FIRST MAJOR A/C DPD, DFX, TQM

BELOW COST ESTIMATE QFD

MD-11 REDUCED NO. OF PARTS BY 3800, WEIGHT BY 240 LB IPT, SSI, TQM, ,

COST PER A/C BY $ 1,27,000 DFX, QFD, LM

BRITISH AEROSPACE BAE-146 DEVELOPMENT TIME REDUCED FROM 36 TO IPT, SI, QFD,

18 MONTHS LM

ippd tools
IPPD TOOLS
  • Information Technology and decision support
  • Trade off studies and Prioritization
  • Cost Performance trade offs
  • Design for Manufacturing
  • Prototyping
  • Modeling Simulation and CAE/CAD/CAM
  • Metrices (Measures of Success)
  • Education and Training
applications of virtual reality to aircraft design manufacture
APPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL REALITY TO AIRCRAFT DESIGN & MANUFACTURE
  • VIRTUAL MOCK-UP-BOEING COMPUTER SERVICES IN SEATTLE
    • VAST AMOUNT OF CAD DATA INTO VR ENVIRONMENT
    • EXPLORE THE AIRCRAFT BEFORE MANUFACTURING
    • ENGINEERS COULD CLIMB AROUND TO FIGURE OUT WHERE TO RUN CABLES & HYDRAULICS PIPES
    • TO ENSURE MECHANICS COULD REACH ALL THE PARTS FOR MAINTENANCE
    • PROOF OF CONCEPT STARTED IN 1990. COMPLETED NON-REAL TIME DEMO
applications of virtual reality to aircraft design and manufacture
APPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL REALITY TO AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
  • AUGMENTED REALITY – BOEING
    • TO PROVIDE MORE INFORMATION IN FRONT OF THE ENGINEERS DESIGNING THE AIRCRAFT AND THE MANUFACTURING WORKER WHO BUILDS THEM
    • SIMPLE TEXTS & GRAPHICS, VOICE ACTIVATED THROUGH “SEE-THOUGH HMD”
    • REGISTRATION OF DATA? VR WALK THROUGH MARKETING – BOEING
  • ENGINE ASSEMBLY – FOR F18 ENGINE RE-DESIGN AT NORTHROP
conclusion
CONCLUSION

IPPD IS SEEN TO BE A NEW WAY OF SIMULTANEOUS DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM’S PRODUCTS WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF ACHIEVING REDUCED TIME COST ALONG WITH OPTIMISED PRODUCTS

organisation evolution
THE OLD WAYS

MISSION TO MAXIMISE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

HIERARCHIAL AUTHORITARIAN STRUCTURE

NARROWLY DEFINED INDIVIDUAL JOBS

MANAGE PEOPLE TO MANAGE RESULTS

RECRUIT PEOPLE WITH FUNCTIONAL

EXPERTISE

THE NEW WAYS

MISSION OF TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION,CONTIN-UOUS IMPROVEMENT , LEARNING

FLEXIBLE TEAM STRUCTURES WITH AUTHORITY CLOSEST TO WORK CAPABILITY

INTEGRATED WORK TEAMS WITH BROAD SCOPE

MANAGE PROCESS TO MANAGE RESULTS

RECRUIT PEOPLE WITH COMMITMENT TO MISSION, SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE. PROVIDE TRAINING FOR PERSONAL GROWTH

ORGANISATION EVOLUTION
systemantics
SYSTEMANTICS
  • SYSTEMS IN GENERAL WORK POORLY OR NOT AT ALL (PRIMAL SCENERIO)
  • NEW SYSTEMS GENERATE NEW PEOBLEMS ( THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM)
  • BIG SYSTEMS EITHER WORK ON THEIR OWN OR THEY DON’T. YOU CAN’T MAKE THEM ( BASIC AXIOM OF SYSTREMS FUNCTION)
  • A SIMPLE SYSTEM , DESIGNED FROM SCRATCH, SOMETIMES WORKS
  • A COMPLEX SYSTEM THAT WORKS IS INVARIABLYFOUND TO HAVE EVOLVED FROM A SIMPLE SYSTEM THAT WORKS
systemantics contd
SYSTEMANTICS(CONTD.)
  • A COMPLEX SYSTEM DESIGNED FROM SCRATCH NEVER WORKS AND CANNOT BE MADE TO WORK. YOU HAVE TO START OVER , BEGINNING WITH A WORKING SIMPLE SYSTEM
  • COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARE BEYOND HUMAN CAPACITY TO EVALUATE
virtual prototyping
VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING
  • BRINGS VISUAL SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TEAMS
  • PERMITS ASSEMBLY STUDIES – FIND OPTIMUM ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY SEQUENCES, CLEARANCE BETWEEN PARTS AND REAL TIME INTERFERENCE CHECKS
  • MAKES DIGITAL MOCK UP A REALITY
  • CAN CHECK INTERFERENCES EVEN IN LOADED VIBRATING STRUCTURES. COULD BE USED TO PREDICT SHORTS IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING
virtual prototype
VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE
  • PREDICT AND PREVENT TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN “ FIND & FIX”
vr application cad cam
VR APPLICATION CAD / CAM
  • STYLING & CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
    • ALLOWS DESIGNERS (GEOGRAPHICALLY SEPARATED) TO WORK TOGETHER WITH GREATER SYNERGY BY “VIRTUALLY CO-LOCATING”. RESULTS IN SHORTER DESIGN CYCLE.
  • ERGONOMIC STUDIES
    • IS THE USER COMFORTABLE? USER CAN FEEL, LOOK, OPERATE AND UNDERSTAND HOW IT OPERATES. USER CAN FEEL WHETHER THE DESIGN MEETS EXPECTATIONS AND BELIEVES THE DESIGN MEETS HIS NEEDS
vr application cad cam1
VR APPLICATION CAD / CAM
  • ASSEMBLY & MODELLING
    • ENGINEERS CAN FLY THROUGH A DESIGN FROM ANY PERSPECTIVE AND STUDY THE ASSEMBLY PROBLEMS
    • STRUCTUTAL, MECHANICAL, THERMA, FLUID, ELECTRONIC AND ACOUSTIC SIMULATIONS TO UNDERSTAND THE s DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE SYSTEM
virtual prototype1
VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE
  • VIRTUAL WIRE – HARNESS PROTOTYPE GENERATED ELIMINATES THE PHYSICAL PROTOTYPES NEEDED FOR VERIFICATION
  • USING ELECTRONICS THERMAL MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ONE CAN BUILD AND TEST VIRTUAL PROTOTYPES – AIRFLOW AND TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS CAN BE PREDICTED WHICH HELPS TO CORRECT THE PROBLEMS AND OPTIMIZE A DESIGN BEFORE CUTTING METAL
virtual testing
VIRTUAL TESTING
  • CIRCUIT SIMULATION – LOW TEMP, HIGH TEMP ETC. AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENT PERFORMANCE LIBRARIES
  • DESIGN FLIGHT SIMULATORS – CONTROL LAW VALIDATION HANDLING QUALITIES ASSESSMENT
  • COMBAT SIMULATORS – ASSESS PERFORMANCE OF THE AIRCRAFT BEING DESIGNED IN A DOG FIGHT WITH KNOWN AIRCRAFT – PILOT IN THE LOOP OR COMPUTER PILOT
process simulation
PROCESS SIMULATION

USED FOR

  • RAPID PROCESS DEVELOPMENT
  • REDUCE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE TIME
  • LOWER THE COST OF DEVELOPING PARTS
process simulation contd
PROCESS SIMULATION (Contd..)

APPLIED TO

  • RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM) OF COMPOSITE PART TO SIMULATE RESIN FLOW
  • CURE SIMULATION IN COMPOSITE PARTS
  • RESIN INJECTION MOULDING (RIM) OF COMPOSITE PARTS
process simulation contd1
PROCESS SIMULATION (Contd..)

APPLIED TO

  • FORGING – METAL FLOW
  • SHEET METAL FORMING
  • CASTINGS – METAL FLOW IN CAVITIES
process simulation1
PROCESS SIMULATION
  • INCREASES THE CHANGES OF BEING RIGHT FIRST TIME
  • RESLUTS IN SAVINGS
  • PERMITS PREDICTION OF COMPONENTS RESLUTANT PROPERTIES
  • OFFERS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROCESS ITSELF
  • IS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL THAT OFFERS ENGINEERS TO MAKE FASTER MORE EFFECTIVE DECISIONS REGARDING THE MANUFACTURE OF A COMPONENT
virtual manufacturing
VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING
  • VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE AN ESPECIALLY POWERFUL TOOL FOR IMPROVING EFFICIENCIES OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, ESPECIALLY IN EARLY PRODUCTION
  • MANUFACTURING SIMULATION
manufacturing simulation
MANUFACTURING SIMULATION

IS USED FOR

  • EVALUATING AND FINE TUNING OF NEW PROCESSES
  • ANALYZING THE OPERATING CHARACTERSITICS OF EXISTING OPERATIONS AND
  • VERIFYING CONTROL STRATEGIES
manufacturing simulation1
MANUFACTURING SIMULATION
  • HELPS PINPOINT THE CAUSE OF PROBLEMS
  • DIFFICULTIES ON THE PLANT FLOOR CAN BE READILY VISUALIZED
  • THE FLOW, PINCH POINTS, BOTTLENECKS ARE APPARENT
  • ITS SOMETHING AN INDIVITUAL OR GROUP ORDINARILY CAN’T SEE
  • IT WILL PROVIDE A PATH TO GET MORE OUT OF THE SYSTEM
  • IT IS AN EXTREMELY IMPORTANT PLANNING AND PROBLEM SOLVING TOOL
  • IT IS A CAPACITY ANALYSIS TOOL
vr application cad cam2
VR APPLICATION CAD / CAM
  • MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING
    • VERIFY INTERFERENCE OF MOVEMENT, ENGINEERS WALK THROUGH
  • MARKETING
situation of aircrft companies
SITUATION OF AIRCRFT COMPANIES
  • TO COMPETE GLOBALLY AIRCRAFT COMPANIES MUST DEVELOP AT:
  • HALF THE COST
  • IN HALF THE TIME
  • WITH HALF THE RESOURCES USED EARLIER
  • DRIVING FORCE- AFFORDABILITY
  • REDUCE COST WITHOUT COMPROMISING QUALITY
slide57

DESIGN +DRAWING RELEASE ( 40 M 0NTHS )

BOEING 767 & 777 SCHEDULES

slide58
IPPD

IPPD EXPANDED ON CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

INCLUDING DEVELOPING ALL THE PROCESSES

PARELLEL WITH THE PRODUCT. MORE THAN THE

PRODUCT AND PROCESS ENGINEERING FUNCTIONS

IPPD ALSO INCLUDES ALL STAKEHOLDERS- THOSE

NOT ONLY DEVELOPING THE PRODUCT BUT ALL

PRODUCT RELATED PROCESSESS SUCH AS TEST

AND EVALUATION , MANUFACTURING , SUPPORT

OPERATIONS AND TRAINING AS WELL AS

BUISINESS PROCESSES

slide60

IPT

TYPICAL

IPT

cost of modifications
COST OF MODIFICATIONS

RELATIVE COST

10000

1000

RULE OF TEN

100

10

1

CONCEPT

DETAIL

PRODUCT

ENGG.

TOOLING

COST OF CHANGES MADE THROUGH THE PRODUCT CYCLE

benifits of improved assy
BENIFITS OF IMPROVED ASSY.

MANUAL DESIGN ASSEMBLY EFFICIENCY (%)

( DFA INDEX )

IMPROVED ASSEMBLY DESIGN EFFICIENCY RESULTS IN INCREASED RELIABILITY