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MKT 345 - Marketing Research Lecture Slides (Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin). Qualitative Research Methods (Reference: Zikmund & Babin Ch. 6). Learning Objectives. At the end of this discussion you should be able to:

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Mkt 345 marketing research lecture slides dr alhassan g abdul muhmin l.jpg

MKT 345 - Marketing ResearchLecture Slides (Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin)

Qualitative Research Methods

(Reference: Zikmund & Babin Ch. 6)


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives

At the end of this discussion you should be able to:

  • Explain the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods

  • Explain the role of qualitative research in exploratory research designs

  • List and explain the main qualitative research orientations

  • List and explain key characteristics of common techniques used in qualitative research

  • Identify and describe the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques


Qualitative research l.jpg
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

  • Research techniques that allow a researcher to obtain elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurements.

    Characteristics

  • Uses small versus large samples

  • Emphasizes unstructured (broad range of) versus structured questioning methods

  • Involves subjective interpretation rather than “objective” statistical inference; is researcher-dependent

  • Has an exploratory purpose rather than descriptive and conclusive



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Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations

Small number of non-representative cases

Unstructured

Non-statistical

Develop an initial understanding

Quantitative Research

To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest

Large number of representative cases

Structured

Statistical

Recommend a final courseof action

Objective

Sample

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Outcome


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Qualitative Research Orientations

  • Four main qualitative research orientations

  • Phenomenology – originating in philosophy and psychology

  • Ethnography – origins in anthropology

  • Grounded theory – originates from sociology

  • Case studies – roots in psychology and business research


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Phenomenology

  • Based on the ideas that:

    • human experience is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which a person lives

    • behavior is shaped by a person’s relationship with the environment in which s/he lives

    • therefore the best way to understand this behavior is to understand the context in which the behavior occurs

    • this engaging in a conversational interview with the subject

  • Researcher may need to become part of the “group” to effectively study it

  • Special form is hermeneutics – relying on analysis of texts in which a person tells a story about themselves


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Ethnography

  • Methods of studying cultures through becoming highly active in the culture.

  • Typically uses observation as a data collection tool, hence the term participant-observation.

  • The observation can be human or mechanical; but is often purposeful, i.e. focusing on specific features of behaviors that are of interest to the study


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Grounded Theory

  • Inductive investigation process in which the researcher uses empirical evidence to develop a theory for explaining a given phenomenon

  • Researcher repeatedly poses questions about the observed evidence and uses the responses to develop a deeper explanation (theory)

  • Particularly applicable in dynamic situations involving significant change – where new insights are needed to explain phenomena that have not been previously encountered


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Case Studies

  • Documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.

  • This intense examination of one or a few situations typically:

    • Involves in-depth investigation and careful study

    • Requires cooperation from the investigated subjects (cases)

  • Case analyses are used to develop themes that can help explain a phenomenon

  • Used extensively in business research and teaching


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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS

  • Focus group interviews (discussions)

  • Depth interviews

  • Conversations

  • Semi-structured interviews

  • Word Association/Sentence completion

  • Observation

  • Collages

  • Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)/Cartoon Tests


1 focus group interviews discussions l.jpg

Unstructured, free-flowing interview (discussion) with a small group of people about the subject area of the research

Unstructured

Free flowing

Group discussion

Group Composition

About 6-10 people

Relatively homogeneous

Similar lifestyles and experiences

Now sometimes conducted online – “Online Focus Groups”

Approach: Ethnography,, Case studies

1. Focus Group Interviews (Discussions)


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The Focus Group Moderator small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • The person in charge of “moderating” the group discussions

  • Usually he:

    • Develops rapport - helps people relax

    • Interacts

    • Listens to what people have to say

    • Everyone gets a chance to speak

    • Maintains loose control and focuses discussion

    • Stimulates spontaneous responses


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2. Depth Interviews small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Unstructured, extensive one-on-one interviews conducted with subjects of ultimate concern (typically consumers or customers).

  • Purpose is to gain valuable insights for the main study

  • May sometimes involve testing aspects of the research design, such as questionnaire clarity, length, etc

  • Approach: Ethnography, Grounded theory, Case studies


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3. Conversations small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Unstructured dialogue in which researcher engages the respondent in a discussion of the subject matter of interest

  • Combines features of focus group and depth interviews

    • Similar to depth interview (in the sense of engaging one respondent at a time)

    • Similar to focus group discussion in the sense of allowing free discussion rather than asking specific questions

  • Approach: Phenomenology; grounded theory


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4. Semi-Structured Interviews small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Open-ended questions with answers solicited in writing – typically in the form of short essays

  • Respondents are free to write as much as or as little as they choose

  • Requires the researcher to prepare the questions (opening and follow-up questions) in advance

  • Approach: Grounded theory; ethnography


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5a. Word Association Tests small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • A projective technique in which subjects are presented with a word and asked to indicate what other words come to mind, e.g.

  • What comes to mind when you hear the following words?

    • Soft drinks

    • Mercedes

  • Technique may be used to develop an associative network of words related to a focal word

  • Useful in brand name testing and product concept testing


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5b. Sentence Completion Tests small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • A projective technique in which subjects are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them with the word or phrase that first comes to mind, e.g.

    • People who drive sports cars are __________

    • A man who drinks light beer is ____________

    • Sports cars are most liked by ______________

    • A sports car is ______________


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6. Observation small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Unobtrusive data collection method in which the researcher watches a phenomenon and records notes describing the phenomenon (e.g. a behavior)

  • Observation can be personal or mechanical; disguised or undisguised; structured or unstructured, etc

  • Approach: Grounded theory; ethnography; case studies


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7. Collages small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Collage – a pattern (larger picture, story, etc) made by sticking pictures or materials on a surface

  • In this research method, respondents are asked to assemble pictures to represent their thoughts/feelings about a phenomenon

  • Collages are then analyzed for meaning

  • Approach: Phenomenology; Grounded theory


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8a. Thematic Apperception Tests (T.A.T.) small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • A projective technique in which subjects are presented with a series of pictures and are then asked to form a story about the pictures

  • TAT Illustration.ppt (Hamilton Power Tools Corporation)


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8b. Picture Frustration (Cartoon) Tests small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • Respondent is presented with a cartoon drawing representing an incomplete dialogue and asked to suggest a dialogue that the characters might engage in

  • See p. 153 of your text


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PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES small group of people about the subject area of the research

  • A collection of exploratory research techniques based on indirect questioning in which respondents are asked to project themselves into a particular person, object, or situation

  • Often used where direct questioning is not likely to provide honest responses

    • Word association tests

    • Sentence completion method

    • Third-person technique

    • Role playing

    • T.A.T.

    • Picture frustration version of T.A.T.


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