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King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Department of Management and Marketing MKT 345 Marketing Research Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin. Communication Methods in Survey Research Reference: Chapter 9. Learning Objectives. At the end of this discussion you should be able to:

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King Fahd University of Petroleum & MineralsDepartment of Management and MarketingMKT 345 Marketing ResearchDr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

Communication Methods in Survey Research Reference: Chapter 9

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

At the end of this discussion you should be able to:

  • list the different communication methods available for data gathering in survey research
  • identify and explain the key characteristics of each communication method
  • compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different communication methods
  • identify key issues in the choice of survey communication method
  • explain the concept of “response rate” in surveys and list the approaches to increasing survey response rates

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

broad classification of communication methods in survey research
Broad Classification of Communication Methods in Survey Research
  • Interviewer-administered survey methods
    • Personal Interviews.
    • Telephone Interviews.
  • (Respondent) Self-administered survey methods.
    • Paper-based
    • Electronic
  • Mixed-mode surveys.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

personal interviews
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS

Personal Interview – A form of direct communication in which an interviewer asks respondents questions face-to-face.

  • Door-to-Door Interviews – Interviews conducted at respondents’ doorsteps (in their homes)
  • Mall Intercept Interviews (Shopping Center Sampling) – Interviews conducted by intercepting respondents at a central location in a shopping mall
  • Pre-arranged Meetings – Interviewing respondents at other mutually agreed upon places

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages of personal interviews
Advantages of Personal Interviews
  • Opportunity for feedback.
  • Opportunity to probe complex questions.
  • Willingness of respondents to spend longer time on interview.
  • Reduction in rate of item nonresponse (completeness of questionnaire).
  • Possibility of using visual aids & props.
  • High response rate / willingness of respondents to participate.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

disadvantages of personal interviews
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews
  • Interviewer influence.
  • Respondent cannot be anonymous.
  • There may be a need for several callbacks (attempts to re-contact individuals who have been selected for a sample but who were not available during the earlier visit)
  • High cost.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

telephone interviews
TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS
  • Interviewer-administered interviews that are conducted over the telephone.
  • Telephone interviews are the most widely used method in commercial survey research

Telephone Interviewing Systems

    • Central Location Interviewing.
    • Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview.
    • Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interviewing.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

telephone interviewing systems
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Central Location Interviewing:

Conducting telephone interviews from a single central location from which all interviewers work

  • Usually through WATS (Wide Area Telecommunications Service) contracts that provide fixed long-distance rates, and allow unlimited calls within a specific geographic area
  • Allows Supervision and control.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

telephone interviewing systems1
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI):

Telephone interviewing system in which the interviewer reads questions from a computer screen and enters the answers directly into the computer

  • Usually incorporate telephone management systems that handle:
      • Phone number selection.
      • Automatic dialing.
      • Sample selection.
      • Automatic callback scheduling.
      • Reporting on number of completed interviews.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

telephone interviewing systems2
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interviews
  • Computer assumes responsibility for all aspects of the interview administration
  • It dials the respondent, asks the questions, and records the responses.
    • Used mainly for short, simple questionnaires.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages of telephone interviews
Advantages of Telephone Interviews
  • Relatively high speed of data collection.
  • Inexpensive compared to personal interviews.
  • Better respondent anonymity than personal interviews.
  • Relatively higher respondent cooperation  lower nonresponse compared to personal interviews.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

disadvantages of telephone interviews
Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews
  • Problems in getting representative samples; unlisted phone numbers; random digit dialing as solution.
  • Problem of answering machines & faxes.
  • Need for callbacks.
  • Respondent can easily hang up.
  • Inability to use visual aids.
  • Need for shorter forms of questioning.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

respondent self administered surveys
[RESPONDENT] SELF-ADMINISTERED SURVEYS
  • Surveys in which respondents take the responsibility for reading and answering the questions.
  • Present a special challenge in questionnaire design because self-administered surveys rely on the efficiency of the written word rather than the skill of the interviewer.
  • Self-administered questionnaires can be classified into paper-based (printed) or electronic (non-printed)

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

exhibit 9 1 self administered questionnaires can be either printed or electronic
EXHIBIT 9.1Self-Administered Questionnaires Can Be Either Printed or Electronic

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

paper printed self administered questionnaires
Paper (Printed) Self-Administered Questionnaires

Distribution Methods

  • Mail (or Postal) Surveys – using regular mail system (now usually called “Snail Mail Surveys”).
  • Drop-off / Pick-up method.
  • Fax surveys
  • Inserts – e.g. in product packages, magazines, etc.
  • Direct distribution to customers – e.g. in restaurants, airplanes, banks.
  • Warranty / Owner registration cards.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages of postal and other printed self administered surveys
Advantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys
  • Geographic flexibility.
  • Lower cost.
  • Respondent convenience
    • Respondent can take time to think about response.
    • Respondent has chance to check records for information.
  • Respondent anonymity.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

disadvantages of postal and other printed self administered surveys
Disadvantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys
  • Absence of interviewer means:
    • Loss of control over the data collection.
    • Respondent can misinterpret questions.
    • Visual props cannot be used.
  • Questions have to be standardized.
  • Takes long time to receive response.
  • Questionnaire has to be short.
  • Low response rates.
  • No assurance that intended subject actually completed the questionnaire.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

response rate issues in postal surveys
RESPONSE RATE ISSUES IN (POSTAL) SURVEYS
  • Response rate:
    • Number of completed and returned questionnaires divided by number of eligible people contacted.

Methods for increasing response rate:

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

exhibit 9 2 example of cover letter for household survey
EXHIBIT 9.2Example of Cover Letter for Household Survey

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Source: Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

methods for increasing response rate
Methods for Increasing Response Rate
  • Cover letter explaining:
    • Study importance.
    • Request for help.
    • Importance of respondent.
    • Sampling method.
    • Description of reward.
    • Promise of confidentiality.
    • Etc.
  • Rewards (monetary & non-monetary).
  • Advance notification.
  • Follow-ups.
  • Prestige of sponsoring institution.
  • Color of questionnaire paper.
  • Type of postage
  • Interesting questions.

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

effects of different methods for increasing response rates in mail surveys
Effects of Different Methods for Increasing Response Rates in Mail Surveys

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

effects of different methods for increasing response rates in mail surveys1
Effects of Different Methods for Increasing Response Rates in Mail Surveys

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

electronic self administered questionnaires
Electronic Self-Administered Questionnaires

Distribution Methods

  • E-mail
    • Text
    • HTML
    • File attachments
  • Internet
    • Bulletin boards
    • Web HTML
    • Downloadable surveys
  • Kiosk Interactive Surveys
  • On-site computers
  • Disk-by-mail (CD-ROM by mail)

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages of e mail questionnaires
Advantages of E-mail Questionnaires
  • Speed of distribution
  • Lower distribution costs
  • Faster turnaround (response) time
  • Greater flexibility
  • Less handling of paper

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

disadvantages of e mail questionnaires
Disadvantages of E-mail Questionnaires
  • Lack of security (Eavesdropping by administrators)
  • Lack of anonymity
  • Differences in capabilities of respondent’s computers and e-mail software
  • Difficulties for e-mail novices

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages of internet surveys
Advantages of Internet Surveys
  • Speed
  • Cost-effectiveness
    • Eliminate cost of paper, postage, and data entry
    • Larger samples can be obtained
  • Visual appeal and interactivity
    • More sophisticated lines of questioning
    • Can use color, sound, animation, and visual materials
  • Accurate real-time data capture
  • Easy callback capabilities
  • Personalized and flexible questioning
  • Respondent anonymity

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

disadvantages of internet surveys
Disadvantages of Internet Surveys
  • Non-widespread use of internet in the general population
  • Differences in capabilities of respondent’s computers and connection speeds
  • Differences in computer skills
  • Lack of security for personal information

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages and disadvantages of typical survey methods
Advantages and Disadvantages of Typical Survey Methods

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

advantages and disadvantages of typical survey methods1
Advantages and Disadvantages of Typical Survey Methods

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

issues in choice of communication method
ISSUES IN CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION METHOD
  • Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?
  • Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?
  • Will cooperation be easily attained?
  • How quickly is the information needed?
  • Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?
  • How large is the budget?

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

ethical issues in survey research
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
  • The American Marketing Association’s code of ethics expresses researchers’ obligation to:
    • Protect the public from misrepresentation and exploitation under the guise of marketing research
    • Protect respondents’ right to privacy
    • Avoid the use of deception
    • Inform respondents about the purpose of the research
    • Maintain confidentiality and honesty in collecting data
    • Maintain objectivity in reporting data

Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals