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Chapter One – Converging Cultures Section One – The Migration to America. The Asian Migration to America The first people arrived in America at least 10,000 years ago (more likely 15,000-30,000 years ago)
Chapter One – Converging Cultures Section One – The Migration to America
The Asian Migration to America • The first people arrived in America at least 10,000 years ago (more likely 15,000-30,000 years ago) • Scientists believe people crossed a land bridge connecting Asia and North America about 15,000 years ago. • The earliest people were probably nomads • searching for food. • d. They continued to migrate • here until water levels rose • closing the landbridge • (Now Bering Straight) • Migrants made use of other • types of food as the • environment changed
2. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica (meso means middle) 1. The agricultural revolution occurred between 9,000-10,000 years ago a. pumpkins, squash, peppers, gourds, beans, corn 2. Corn became vitally important b. bread (could be stored for a longtime) 3. Abandon the nomadic life (settle villages) 4. Civilizations emerged
The Olmecs • Between 1,500-1,200 B.C. near Veracruz, Mexico • Large villages, temples and pyramids • Large stone heads (20 tons) • Died out about 300 B.C.
b. The Maya 1. Ideas spread from the Olmec civilization 2. Obsidian for tools and weapons 3. Developed elaborate trade networks 4. Lasted to about 900 AD (exhausted the soil?) 5. Studied astronomy, math and engineering 6. Build great pyramids (Chichen Itza)
c. The Toltec • Built a large city called Tula • Built large pyramids, and palaces with pillared halls. • Conquered by the Aztecs around 1200 AD
d. The Aztecs 1. Built a military empire 2. Conquered neighboring cities 3. Brought some captured people to serve as human sacrifices 4. About five million people under Aztec rule by the time the Spanish arrived in the 1500’s
3. North American Cultures a. The Hohokam 1. Began about 300AD 2. Built canal networks from the Gila and Salt Rivers 3. Grew corn, cotton, beans and squash 4. The Hohokam vanished by about 1500, likely due to floods or competition for farmland
b. The Anasazi 1. Lived in the four corners area (CO,UT,NM,AZ) 2. Channeled and captured rain water for their crops 3. Built Chaco Canyon between 850-1100 a. Multi-Story buildings (Spanish called them pueblos) 4. Built their pueblos where streams of rainwater ran together 5. Died out around likely due to drought or epidemics
c. The Adena and Hopewell Cultures 1. developed in the eastern woodlands 2. developed woodwoking tools and axes 3. buried their dead in burial mounds 4. Adena declined around 200 AD, Hopewell around 400 AD
d. The Mississippian Culture 1. Developed in the MS river valley 2. Moundbuilders 3. Largest city was Cahokia (near St. Louis) a. About 16,000 people 4. Collapsed around 1300 AD a. famine, emigration, attack