QUIT 26 C H A P T E R The United States in Today’s World CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE The 1990s and the New Millennium 1 SECTION GRAPH MAP The New Global Economy 2 SECTION Technology and Modern Life 3 SECTION The Changing Face of America 4 SECTION VISUAL SUMMARY
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE HOME 26 C H A P T E R The United States in Today’s World To summarize the political and social events of the 1990s and early 2000s
HOME 26 C H A P T E R The United States in Today’s World I N T E R A C T W I T H H I S T O R Y You are a high school senior who is active in student government and community service. You have been chosen from among thousands of students nationwide to address an international youth symposium on global issues and reforms. As a U.S. delegate to the event, you address the crowd, confident that young people will be able to change the future. What are the most important issues that affect the world today? Examine the Issues • What makes nations increasingly dependent on one another? • How does technology affect society worldwide? • What are the ways to foster cooperation among nations?
TIME LINE 1995Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated. 1994In South Africa’s first all-race election, Nelson Mandela is elected president. 1995“Million Man March” held in Washington, D.C. 1994Republicans gain control of both houses of Congress. 1997Madeleine Albright is the first woman to become secretary of state. 1997Scottish scientist clones “Dolly” the sheep. HOME 26 C H A P T E R The United States in Today’s World The United States The World 1992Twenty-seventh Amendment prohibits midterm congressional pay raises. William Jefferson Clinton is elected president. 1993Russia and United States sign START-II reducing warheads and ICBMs. 1996President Clinton is reelected. continued . . .
TIME LINE 1998President Clinton is impeached. 1998Northern Ireland, the Irish Republic, and the United Kingdom sign peace agreements. 2000The dreaded “Y2K” bug proves harmless to computer systems globally. 2000George W. Bush is elected 43rd president. 2001On September 11, terrorists attack New York’s World Trade Center and the Pentagon with hijacked jets. 2001Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic is brought before the UN war crimes tribunal. HOME 26 C H A P T E R The United States in Today’s World The United States The World 1999Senate acquits President Clinton.
1 S E C T I O N The 1990s and the New Millennium HOME GRAPH MAP KEY IDEA Bill Clinton is elected and moves the nation’s politics toward the center. The second Clinton term is marred by scandal and an impeachment. George W. Bush wins the Presidency amid controversy over balloting in several states. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N The 1990s and the New Millennium •H. Ross Perot •Newt Gingrich •George W. Bush •NAFTA •Al Gore •Kenneth Starr •William Jefferson Clinton •Hillary Rodham Clinton •Contract with America HOME GRAPH MAP OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW As the Democratic and Republican parties move closer in agenda, the extreme liberal or conservative viewpoints are less popular. The Democrats gained control of the White House by moving their party’s platform toward the political center. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N The 1990s and the New Millennium ASSESSMENT Major Action Major Action Major Action Major Action Major Action Major Action HOME GRAPH MAP 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List President Clinton’s major actions during his two terms. Nov. 1993NAFTA 1996signed welfare reform bill 1999authorized U.S. participation in NATO bombing of Serbia Sept. 1993health care bill to Congress 1995American peace-keeping force in Bosnia 1997signed budget agreement continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N The 1990s and the New Millennium ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH MAP 2. What event or trend during the Clinton administration do you think will have the most lasting impact on the United States? Why? ANSWER Welfare reform: shift in policy regarding poverty Clinton’s impeachment: one of only two Presidents to have faced impeachment Balancing the budget: helped strengthen the economy End of Section 1
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy HOME KEY IDEA Workers face new challenges to their economic security as the U.S. economy evolves. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy •Bill Gates •NASDAQ •dotcom •downsize •General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) •service sector HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Because of technological advances and new trade laws, the U.S. economy underwent a boom during the late 20th century. New types of business have meant new work environments and new challenges for American workers. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy ASSESSMENT Economic Changes HOME 1. Record the major changes that occurred in the U.S. economy during the 1990s. contract workers downsizing expanding service sector NASDAQ high-tech industry international trade global economy GATT drop in union membership dotcoms businesses move out of the country decline in industrial work continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy ASSESSMENT HOME 2. Explain who was negatively affected by the changes in the economy and what negative effects they suffered. Think About: •who had the highest unemployment rates •what types of jobs were eliminated •what other negative effects there were ANSWER Young people, factory workers, and unskilled workers lost jobs; large corporations hired temporary employees; many workers received only small wage increases and experienced cuts in benefits. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy ASSESSMENT HOME 3. How do you explain some Americans’ fears over the international trade agreements? ANSWER Americans feared job security would be threatened. Companies would move operations to other countries to take advantage of cheap labor and lower production costs. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The New Global Economy ASSESSMENT HOME 4. Considering the economic changes described in this section, how do you think workers can best prepare themselves for the future? ANSWER • self-employment • good job-hunting skills • education; technology skills • learn foreign languages • be flexible • acquire new skills End of Section 2
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life HOME KEY IDEA New opportunities and challenges arise from technological developments in many industries, especially computers and communications. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life •information superhighway •genetic engineering •Internet •telecommute •Telecommunications Act of 1996 HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Advances in technology have increased the pace but also the comfort of many Americans’ daily lives. Providing access to the new technology and regulating its use are two current challenges facing 21st-century America. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life ASSESSMENT Technological Change Effect on Society 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four of the technological changes described in this section and explain how each change has affected society. Allowed for almost instant transmittal of text, images, and sound; world wide web Internet Enhanced virtual imaging applications in industry, medicine, and education Virtual reality Reduced the dependence on fossil fuels Electric cars Improved the capability of making medical diagnoses MRI continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life ASSESSMENT HOME 2. Explain how government, business, and individuals are important to the existence of the information superhighway. Think About: •the costs of developing the superhighway •the equipment and personnel needed to maintain it •who uses the superhighway and why they use it ANSWER Government provides regulation, financial support, incentives for businesses; companies provide goods, services, advertising, upgrades; individual consumers support businesses; all three groups contribute information, research, and participation in global communications. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life ASSESSMENT HOME 3. Why is genetic engineering a source of controversy? ANSWER The possibility that genetic engineering may be used to control people’s appearance or behavior has created controversy about its applications. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Technology and Modern Life ASSESSMENT HOME 4. Which area of technological change described in this section do you think was the most important one for the country? Explain. ANSWER Communications: global proliferation of information, improved education Transportation: safety and efficiency Health care: new medical technologies saved lives, better quality of life Entertainment: fun, leisure activities Environment: technology to aid in solving the pollution problem End of Section 3
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America HOME KEY IDEA Demographic changes in the United States have significant implications for American society at the outset of the 21st century OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America •gentrification •urban flight •Proposition 187 HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW At the end of the 20th century, the U.S. population grew more diverse both in ethnic background and in age. Americans of all backgrounds share common goals: the desire for equal rights and economic opportunity. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America ASSESSMENT Demographic Changes HOME 1. Demography is the study of statistics about human populations. Summarize the demographic changes occurring in the United States. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Urban distribution More suburban, less urban Age More senior citizens Ethnic and racial makeup More Asians and Hispanics continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America ASSESSMENT HOME 2. As urban problems become more common in the suburbs, how might the residents of suburbs respond? Base your answer on existing behavior patterns. Think About: •the spread of suburbs farther and farther from the city •the new ability to telecommute •the tax problems that suburbs face ANSWER Some people move to different suburbs farther away. Others might return to the cities. continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America ASSESSMENT HOME 3. How was the immigration that occurred in the years 1990–2000 similar to and different from earlier waves of immigration? ANSWER Similar: desire for economic opportunity, democratic freedom Different: 1990–2000 immigrants from a wider variety of countries continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N The Changing Face of America ASSESSMENT HOME 4. How do disagreements over immigration policy reflect the benefits and challenges of a diverse population? ANSWER The disagreements show that in a diverse culture there are differing ideas on immigration policy and that society allows freedom of speech on the issue. End of Section 4