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  1. States of Matter Section 12.1Gases Section 12.2Forces of Attraction Section 12.3Liquids and Solids Section 12.4Phase Changes Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit Chapter Menu

  2. Section 12.1 Gases Usethe kinetic-molecular theory to explain the behavior of gases. Describehow mass affects the rates of diffusion and effusion. Explainhow gas pressure is measured and calculate the partial pressure of a gas. kinetic energy: energy due to motion Section 12-1

  3. Section 12.1 Gases (cont.) kinetic-molecular theory elastic collision temperature diffusion Graham’s law of effusion pressure barometer pascal atmosphere Dalton’s law of partial pressures Gases expand, diffuse, exert pressure, and can be compressed because they are in a low density state consisting of tiny, constantly-moving particles. Section 12-1

  4. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory Kinetic-molecular theory explains the different properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Atomic composition affects chemical properties. Atomic composition also affects physical properties. The kinetic-molecular theory describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion. Section 12-1

  5. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory (cont.) Gases consist of small particles separated by empty space. Gas particles are too far apart to experience significant attractive or repulsive forces. Section 12-1

  6. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory (cont.) Gas particles are in constant random motion. An elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. Section 12-1

  7. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory (cont.) Kinetic energy of a particle depends on mass and velocity. Temperatureis a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter. Section 12-1

  8. Explaining the Behavior of Gases Great amounts of space exist between gas particles. Compression reduces the empty spaces between particles. Section 12-1

  9. Explaining the Behavior of Gases (cont.) Gases easily flow past each other because there are no significant forces of attraction. Diffusionis the movement of one material through another. Effusion is a gas escaping through a tiny opening. Section 12-1

  10. Explaining the Behavior of Gases (cont.) Graham’s law of effusion states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass. Graham’s law also applies to diffusion. Section 12-1

  11. Gas Pressure Pressureis defined as force per unit area. Gas particles exert pressure when they collide with the walls of their container. Section 12-1

  12. Gas Pressure (cont.) The particles in the earth’s atmosphere exert pressure in all directions called air pressure. There is less air pressure at high altitudes because there are fewer particles present, since the force of gravity is less. Section 12-1

  13. Gas Pressure (cont.) Torricelli invented the barometer. Barometersare instruments used to measure atmospheric air pressure. Section 12-1

  14. Gas Pressure (cont.) Manometers measure gas pressure in a closed container. Section 12-1

  15. Gas Pressure (cont.) The SI unit of force is the newton (N). One pascal(Pa) is equal to a force of one Newton per square meter or N/m2. One atmosphereis equal to 760 mm Hg or 101.3 kilopascals. PSI pounds per inch2 14.7 psi = 1 atm Section 12-1

  16. Gas Pressure (cont.) Section 12-1

  17. Convert 29.8 in. of Hg to mmHg Change mmHg from above to kPa then psi, then atm

  18. Gas Pressure (cont.) Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases of the mixture. • The partial pressure of a gas depends on the number of moles, size of the container, and temperature and is independent of the type of gas. Section 12-1

  19. Gas Pressure (cont.) Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 +...Pn Partial pressure can be used to calculate the amount of gas produced in a chemical reaction. Section 12-1

  20. Do questions 4-6 page 392 Answers page 939

  21. A B C D Section 12.1 Assessment The average of kinetic energy of particles in a substance is measured by its ____. A.mass B.density C.temperature D.pressure Section 12-1

  22. A B C D Section 12.1 Assessment One mole of oxygen in a 5.0 liter container has the same partial pressure as one mol of hydrogen in the same container. This is a demonstration of what law? A.law of conservation of mass B.law of definite proportions C.law of conservation of energy D.Dalton’s law of partial pressures Section 12-1

  23. Section 1 quiz

  24. Section 12.1 Gases Key Concepts The kinetic-molecular theory explains the properties of gases in terms of the size, motion, and energy of their particles. Dalton’s law of partial pressures is used to determine the pressures of individual gases in gas mixtures. Graham’s law is used to compare the diffusion rates of two gases. Study Guide 1

  25. End of Section 12-1

  26. Section 12.2 Forces of Attraction Describeintramolecular forces. polar covalent:a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally Compare and contrastintermolecular forces. dispersion force dipole-dipole force hydrogen bond Intermolecular forces—including dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonds—determine a substance’s state at a given temperature. Section 12-2

  27. Intermolecular Forces Attractive forces between molecules cause some materials to be solids, some to be liquids, and some to be gases at the same temperature. Section 12-2

  28. Intermolecular Forces (cont.) Dispersion forcesare weak forces that result from temporary shifts in density of electrons in electron clouds. Section 12-2

  29. Intermolecular Forces (cont.) Dipole-dipole forces are attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules. Section 12-2

  30. Intermolecular Forces (cont.) Hydrogen bondsare special dipole-dipole attractions that occur between molecules that contain a hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone pair of electrons, typically fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. Section 12-2

  31. Intermolecular Forces (cont.) Section 12-2

  32. Forces of attraction--------- strongest covalent (inside molecules) ionic (inside formula units) metallic( in metals) Between molecules hydrogen (H and O,N,or F) dipole (polar molecules) dispersion or London (nonpolar) ------- weakest

  33. Do question 14 page 395

  34. A B C D Section 12.2 Assessment A hydrogen bond is a type of ____. A.dispersion force B.ionic bond C.covalent bond D.dipole-dipole force Section 12-2

  35. A B C D Section 12.2 Assessment Which of the following molecules can form hydrogen bonds? A.CO2 B.C2H6 C.NH3 D.H2 Section 12-2

  36. Section 2 quiz

  37. Section 12.2 Forces of Attraction Key Concepts Intramolecular forces are stronger than intermolecular forces. Dispersion forces are intermolecular forces between temporary dipoles. Dipole-dipole forces occur between polar molecules. Study Guide 2

  38. End of Section 12-2

  39. Section 12.3 Liquids and Solids Contrastthe arrangement of particles in liquids and solids. Describethe factors that affect viscosity. Explainhow the unit cell and crystal lattice are related. meniscus:the curved surface of a column of liquid Section 12-3

  40. Section 12.3 Liquids and Solids (cont.) viscosity surface tension surfactant crystalline solid unit cell allotrope amorphous solid The particles in solids and liquids have a limited range of motion and are not easily compressed. Section 12-3

  41. Liquids Forces of attraction keep molecules closely packed in a fixed volume, but not in a fixed position. Liquids are much denser than gases because of the stronger intermolecular forces holding the particles together. Large amounts of pressure must be applied to compress liquids to very small amounts. Section 12-3

  42. Liquids (cont.) Fluidity is the ability to flow and diffuse; liquids and gases are fluids. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow and is determined by the type of intermolecular forces, size and shape of particles, and temperature. Section 12-3

  43. Liquids (cont.) The stronger the intermolecular attractive forces, the higher the viscosity. Larger molecules create greater viscosity. Long chains of molecules result in a higher viscosity. Increasing the temperature decreases viscosity because the added energy allows the molecules to overcome intermolecular forces and flow more freely. Section 12-3

  44. What is the difference between weights of oil?

  45. Liquids (cont.) Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount. Surfactantsare compounds that lower the surface tension of water. Section 12-3

  46. Liquids (cont.) Cohesion is the force of attraction between identical molecules. Adhesion is the force of attraction between molecules that are different. Capillary action is the upward movement of liquid into a narrow cylinder, or capillary tube. Section 12-3

  47. Solids Solids contain particles with strong attractive intermolecular forces. Particles in a solid vibrate in a fixed position. Most solids are more dense than liquids. Ice is not more dense than water. Section 12-3

  48. Solids (cont.) Crystalline solidsare solids with atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in an orderly, geometric shape. Section 12-3

  49. Solids (cont.) A unit cellis the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal. Section 12-3