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Bellringer – India Review • What are the two major rivers of India? Where are they located? • What were the two largest cities in the Indus River valley? What technological features do they display? • What are the four geographical regions of India? • What is the primary feature of India’s climate? • What is Sanskrit? (pg 35)
China Overview • China has one of the world’s oldest cultures, dating back more than 6,000 years. • Largest population of any country in the world • 1.35 billion people • More than 50 different ethnic groups, several different languages, many dialects. • China covers about 9,596,960 square kilometers. • China is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, and the USA).
The Impact of Geography • GUIDING QUESTION How did China's physical geography influence the location of its early civilizations?
Locate the following: Huang He River Yangtze River Beijing 4. Mongolia 7. East China Sea 5. Hong Kong 8. South China Sea 6. Shanghai
Huang He and Yangtze • The Huang He (Yellow River) stretches more than 2,900 miles from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean. • The Yangtze River flows 3,400 miles across central China, emptying into the Yellow Sea. • Valleys along the two rivers were among the greatest food-producing areas of the ancient world.
Geographical isolation • Mountains and deserts isolated the Chinese people from peoples in other parts of Asia. • The northern frontier became an area of conflict as Chinese armies tried to protect their land from other peoples. • Only 10 percent of the total land is suitable for farming (compared to 19 percent of United States) • The rest of China consists of mountains and deserts on its northern and western frontiers.
Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Tibetan Plateau
Varied climate • Climate variations in China are based on elevation and monsoons. • Dry and wet seasons create significant temperature differences in winter and summer.
Discussion Question: Why were the early Chinese isolated from other peoples? Most of the people settled around the river valleys, with mountains and deserts cutting them off from neighboring peoples.
Dynasty Definition • Dynasty: A family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family.
Dynastic cycles • Throughout Chinese history, dynasties followed a predictable cycle: • A rise to power, then years of successful rule, and finally a decline in power, leading to rebellions or invasions.
A new dynasty comes to power. The emperorreforms the govt.& makes it moreefficient. Start here Emperor isdefeated !! Lives of common people improved;taxes reduced;farming encouraged. TheDynasticCycle Rebel bands findstrong leader whounites them.Attack the emperor. Problems begin(extensive wars,invasions, etc.) Poor loserespect for govt.They join rebels& attack landlords. Taxes increase;men forced towork for army.Farming neglected. Droughts,floods,famines occur. Govt. increasesspending; corruption.
The Shang Dynasty (1766 - 1121 BC) • GUIDING QUESTION: What characterized China under the Shang dynasty?
Aristocracy • Under the Shang dynasty, China was largely agricultural. • China was ruled by an aristocracy(the chief landowners) whose major concern was war. • Aristocracy: an upper class whose wealth is land-based and who passes power from one generation to the next. • Impressive cities were built.
Political and social structures: • The realm was divided into territories governed by military leaders called warlords, appointed by the king.
Political and social structures • The king controlled large armies, which often fought on the fringes of the kingdom. • Below the royalty and the aristocracy in the social hierarchy were the mass of peasants and a small number of merchants and artisans.
Religion and Culture: • The Chinese believed in supernatural forces that helped the rulers, as well as in life after death. • They communicated with the gods through oracle bones. • The Shang were masters of bronze casting. • Many of their works have been recovered from tombs (like the one we’re about to see).
Oracle Bones • Oracle bones are pieces of bone, normally from shoulder blades of an ox or turtle, which were used for fortune telling during the late Shang dynasty. • People would submit questions to their gods regarding future weather, crop planting, the fortunes of members of the royal family, military endeavors, and other similar topics. • These questions were carved onto the bone using a sharp tool. • Intense heat was then applied with a metal rod until the bone or shell cracked. • The pattern of cracks would be interpreted, and the interpretation would be written upon the piece, as well.
Ruins of Yin • Archaeological work at the Ruins of Yin (near modern day Anyang), which has been identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices. • Tens of thousands of bronze, jade, stone, bone, and ceramic artifacts have been obtained. The workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.
Burial Pit of Tomb of Fu Hao • Lady Hao was a military leader and the wife of Shang King Wu Ding. The tomb was discovered in 1976 and has been dated to BCE 1250. • It was completely undisturbed, and in addition to the remains of the Queen the tomb was discovered to contain 6 dog skeletons, 16 human slave skeletons, and numerous grave goods of huge archaeological value. • The tomb was thoroughly excavated and extensively restored and is now open to the public.
Shang Art and Bronze Work • Scholars have called the bronzes of the Shang dynasty the pinnacle of creative art in ancient China. • Bronze objects created during the early part of the dynasty were primitive, but later Shang artisans created elegant ceremonial bronzes as well as a variety of cooking and serving dishes as well as ornaments. • Serving bowls were often stemmed, and pouring vessels had long spouts; these and numerous other vessels were often richly decorated. • Bronze weapons helped the Shang army become a formidable power; these weapons included spears and battleaxes. Some warriors wore bronze helmets and armor.
Axe Scepter – 1200 BCE - jade Ceremonial Dagger – 1128 BCE
The Zhou Dynasty (1121 – 255 BC) Pronounced “Joe” GUIDING QUESTION • What contributed to the success and longevity of Zhou rule?
Political system: • The Zhou dynasty • The longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history. • Continued the political system used by the Shang, with territories governed by aristocraticofficials under the king's authority.
Mandate of Heaven • The Zhou claimed to rule by virtue of a mandate of Heaven, with the king serving as a link between Heaven and Earth. • The mandate became the basic principle of Chinese government and lasted into the twentieth century.
Mandate of Heaven • The nobles were tired of war between the Shang and the Zhou. Most of the nobles would have the same life under Shang or Chou rule, and they knew it. As for the peasants, it did not matter to them which family ruled. The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: • The right to rule is granted by Heaven. • There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. • The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. • The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.
Mandate of Heaven Here are some of the ways these principles converted into action and justification: • It gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. • It gives the ruler supreme power. • It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly if the people believe he has the 'Mandate of Heaven'. • A ruler's power must be kept in check by virtue. • The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. Simply because it was successful, obviously then, the new ruler had to have had a Mandate from Heaven.
Military technology • By the end of the Zhou period, iron weapons had replaced bronze weapons, and soldiers on horseback carried powerful crossbows.
Society under the Zhou • Social structure • During the Zhou dynasty, as in the Shang, peasants worked on land owned by their lords. • Town-dwelling artisans and merchants were also under the control of local lords. • A class of slaves also existed.
Importance of the family • The family served as the basic Chinese economic and social unit and symbolized the social order. • Filial piety was expected, with family members subordinating their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family. Filial piety: respect for parents.
Zhou accomplishments: • Significant technological and economic growth took place, including the use of irrigation and iron plows, which increased the available cropland. • The production of more food allowed the population to grow. • Trade and manufacturing also grew, and a writing system based on pictographs and ideographs was developed.
Why is the family considered a symbol of the entire Chinese social order? • It reflects male supremacy and a system in which people subordinate their personal needs to the wishes of the head of the family or state. • Why do you think the Chinese felt the need for a written language? • As the population and the economy grew, they had a greater need to communicate with people at a distance, to keep track of business transactions, and to preserve religious traditions and cultural history.