Early South Asia Review Ch.7-8
Q: What town in the Indus Valley had been the center of an ancient civilization? What name was it given? • A: Harappa was the center of the Indus Valley civilization.
Section 4: India Under British Rule • Which group ruled India after 1763? • The British East India Company
Section 1: Religious Traditions • Using the map on page 181, list 4 places where Buddhism spread. • Ceylon • Burma • Malaya • Sumatra, Borneo, Java (Indonesia) • Tibet • China • Mongolia • Korea • Japan
Section 4: India Under British Rule • What happened to the Mughal empire in the early 1700s? • They lost control of territory to rival princes who set up independent kingdoms.
Q: ___________________ is one of the most densely populated nations in the world. • A: Bangladesh
Section 3: Patterns of Life • What were a Hindu woman’s three main duties? • 1. marry • 2. wait on her husband • 3. bear sons
Section 3: Patterns of Life • Within the Hindu family and society, _______________ had few __________________. • Women; rights
Q: During what months do these 2 seasons occur? • A: Wet monsoon = May/June-September • Dry monsoon = October-February
Section 3: Patterns of Life • What was purdah? • The complete seclusion of higher-caste women.
Q: What 3 main rivers are found in South Asia? • A: the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra
Q: What was a rajah? • A: A rajah was a hereditary chief who was assisted by a council of warriors and a priest in governing a village.
Q: What geographic feature occupies nearly half of southern Asia? • A: the Deccan plateau
Section 1: Religious Traditions • Define: atman • An essential self that is part of a universal soul.
Section 1: Religious Traditions • List one way Buddha agreed with Hindus and one way he differed from them. • Agree: salvation was achieved when the individual self escaped the body; karma; reincarnation • Disagree: Buddha denied the existence of gods; believed priests were unnecessary; rejected caste system
Section 3: Patterns of Life • Each village had a variety of _____________________ that did the jobs needed for _____________________. • Castes; daily life
Q: Which is the longest? Which is the most sacred river to Hindus? • A: The Indus River is the longest, but the most sacred to Hindus is the Ganges.
Section 2: Powerful Empires • Under the Gupta’s, India enjoyed a _________________. • Golden age (of art, literature, math, etc.)
Section 1: Religious Traditions • What are sects? What is different about these groups? • Religious groups; they worship different gods and goddesses
Section 4: India Under British Rule • What was the effect of the following:British set up schools to educate higher-caste Indians? • Created Indian middle-class; English language united Indians; learned political ideals of freedom and democracy; contributed to growth of nationalism
Section 1: Religious Traditions • Why did Siddhartha Gautama leave his home? What happened to him? • He was tired of being sheltered in the palace and wanted to meet his subjects. He saw an old man, a sick man, and a dead man and realized that life was full of suffering.
Q: Every 5-7 years, what storms hit this nation? • A: A tropical storm called a cyclone.
Q: What do most people in south Asia depend on in order to make a living? • A: farming
Section 3: Patterns of Life • How did the caste system change over thousands of years? • It grew from four varna to thousands of castes and became increasingly complex and strict.
Section 4: India Under British Rule • List the 2 causes of the Sepoy Rebellion. • 1. rumors that rifle cartridges were greased with beef or pork fat • 2. laws that required sepoys to fight overseas
Section 3: Patterns of Life • Each ____________________ had its own _______________, and a person’s _____________ was determined at birth.? • Occupation; caste; job
Q: What is a monsoon? What two monsoons define the seasons of south Asia? • A: A monsoon is a seasonal wind that dominates the climate of South Asia. • The wet monsoon of summer brings heavy rains and warm temperatures. The dry monsoon of winter brings low humidity and mild temperatures.
Section 3: Patterns of Life • What are sati? What do these women do? • “Virtuous women.” These widows committed suicide by throwing themselves onto their husbands’ funeral fires.
Q: 26. True or False: The Aryans were a monotheistic religion. • A: False
Section 4: India Under British Rule • Which nation eventually took control of India? • Britain
Section 3: Patterns of Life • The head of the family _____________________ marriages to protect and ____________________ the family. • Arranged; benefit
Section 2: Powerful Empires • Under which ruler did it reach its Golden Age? • Akbar
Q: Much of what we know about the Aryans comes from oral religious traditions, known as ________________. What do these include? • A: The Vedas. The Vedas include stories of the Aryan gods such as Indra, the warrior god, and Varuna, a god who governed the universe and punished sinners.
Q: What was Gondwanaland? What did it do? • A: Gondwanaland was a huge land mass in the Southern Hemisphere. It broke apart and one part drifted northward colliding with mainland Asia forming the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains.
Section 2: Powerful Empires • Who built the TajMahal and why? • It was built by Shah Jahan as a monument to his deceased wife.
Section 4: India Under British Rule • Define: sepoy • An Indian soldier in the British army
Section 2: Powerful Empires • What is a sultan? • A Muslim ruler
Q: What were the four social classes of the Aryans? • Brahmans – priests • Kshatriyas – warriors • Vaisyas – landowners, merchants, and herders • Sudras – servants and peasants
Q: What is a caste? • A: A caste is a social group based on birth.
Q: What is the most densely populated geographic area of South Asia? • A: the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Section 1: Religious Traditions • What are the most important texts in the Hindu religion? • Vedas and the Upanishads
Q: What were the varna? • A: The varna were four social classes into which the Aryans divided their society.
Q: What is the most widely spoken language in India? About how many languages are recognized there? • A: Hindi is the most widely spoken language. India recognizes 15 official languages and 35 other major regional languages.
Q: What is a dialect? • A: A dialect is a regional version of a language with its own words, expressions, and pronunciations.
Section 1: Religious Traditions • What were the two sects of Buddhism? How were they different? • Theraveda – stressed a monastic life; respected Buddha as teacher, but did not worship him as a god; common in Ceylon, Burma, and Thailand • Mahayana – worshipped the Buddha and other enlightened ones as gods; China, Tibet, Japan, and Korea
Q: What different religions exist in South Asia? • A: Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, and Buddhism
Section 1: Religious Traditions • What is nirvana? How do you achieve it? • Nirvana is freedom from the cycle of birth and death. It is achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path.
Section 1: Religious Traditions • Hindus worship thousands of ___________. • Gods