Modern English 1800-2005. English 1720. British Colonies 1763. Declaration of Indepence 1776. British Colonies 1815. British Empire 1918-1939. Languages of India. English-speaking countries 2000. British Empire 1918-1939. English-speaking countries 2000. English in Europe.
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British Empire 1918-1939
English-speaking countries 2000
English is the language of all international affairs: politics, economy, culture, science, air traffic, sports.
Will the world end up with only one language?
Will English become the native language of the world?
English has acquired many new words for new scientific and technological concepts.
The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known to the specialst, but some words have become part of the everyday language.
automobile traffic light
railroad to park
airport to tune up
cable TV soap opera
cell phone microphone
to surf the internet hacker
spam mail CD-ROM
insulin immune system
junk food coca cola
French fries pepsi
potato chips gyros
au pair semantics
kosher to schlep
bagel to schwitz
strudel to yodel
fire extinguisher streamline
jet lag airport
junk food space shuttle
lifestyle to skydive
roller blades to outsource
trans-Siberian postgraduate study
transliterate post doc
chunnel trafficator smog fantabulous
Radar radio detecting and ranging)
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom
OPEC Organization of Petrolium Exporting Countries
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
hardware garbage can
Flapping of [t] in American English:
calm, psalm, palm, balm
abide abode abided
mow mew mowed
saw sew sawed
strive strove strived
swell swoll swelled
Thrive throve thrived
2. Which and that mark the contrast between restrictive and non-restrictive relatives.
3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is obligatory.
(1) *He talked to the man __ bought our company.
(2) He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street.
(1) granted, pending
(2) in front of, on the basis of
(3) assuming that, given that
(4) on grounds that, in view of the fact that
Standard use New common use
convince of convince about
married to married with
take charge of take charge over
in search of in search for
(1) My car is being broken.
(2) My house is being painted.
(3) This problem is being discussed at today’s meeting.
(1’) My car is repairing.
(2’) My house is painting.
(3’) This problem is discussing today’s meeting.
(1) The walls were painted.
(2) The walls got painted.
I am going to marry Bill.
[i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill]
I [am going [to marry [Bill]]].
>>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]]
Source Target: AUX
go (motion) gonna
will (intention) will
have (possession) have
Source Target: P
during (verb) during
in front of (PP) in front of
a-gone (PRE-verb) ago
Source Target: CONJ
by cause (PP) because
DEM while SUB while
Source Target: PRO/ART
some body (NP) somebody
one (numeral) the one
one (numeral) a
Source Target: Discourse
do you know y‘know
I think (I) think
I guess (I) guess
Source Target: Bound
Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source.
There is at least one other class for the development of grammatical markers: demonstratives.
Demonstratives provide a frequent historical source for a wide variety of grammatical expressions: articles, relative and third person pronouns, sentence connectives, copulas, directional preverbs, focus markers etc.
Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat.
Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, denerheute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat.
There is no evidence from any language that demonstratives developed from lexical expressions.
Are demonstratives grammatical markers?
Demonstratives function to establish joint attention, which is one of the most fundamental functions of human communication.
Demonstratives have a special status in language: They are part of the basic vocabulary of every language.