modern english 1800 2005 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Modern English 1800-2005 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Modern English 1800-2005

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 60

Modern English 1800-2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on

Modern English 1800-2005. English 1720. British Colonies 1763. Declaration of Indepence 1776. British Colonies 1815. British Empire 1918-1939. Languages of India. English-speaking countries 2000. British Empire 1918-1939. English-speaking countries 2000. English in Europe.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Modern English 1800-2005' - karis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
english speaking countries 2000
English-speaking countries 2000

British Empire 1918-1939

English-speaking countries 2000

english as a world language
English as a world language

English is the language of all international affairs: politics, economy, culture, science, air traffic, sports.

globalisation
Globalisation
  • Political dominance of the US
  • World wide trading relationships
  • Increasing mobility
  • The Internet
the future of english
The Future of English

Will the world end up with only one language?

Will English become the native language of the world?

the growth of the vocabulary
The growth of the vocabulary

English has acquired many new words for new scientific and technological concepts.

The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known to the specialst, but some words have become part of the everyday language.

transportation
Transportation

automobile traffic light

car windshield

train freeway

truck clutch

plane gearshift

railroad to park

airport to tune up

electronic media
Electronic media

cinema videotape

movie VCR

film DVD

broadcast stereo

television radio

cable TV soap opera

telephone antenna

cell phone microphone

computer
Computer

computer PC

software modem

hardware RAM

mouse byte

cursor internet

download email

to surf the internet hacker

virus firewall

spam mail CD-ROM

medicine
Medicine

AIDS proteins

Antibiotics cholesterol

vaccine carbohydrate

clinic EKG

injection DNA

hormones x-rays

aspirin schizophrenic

insulin immune system

slide22
Food

chili Goulash

enchilada tofu

taco muesli

nachos pizza

junk food coca cola

French fries pepsi

potato chips gyros

hamburger muffin

french
French

chef chauffeur

menu coupon

beige elite

gourmet garage

restaurant genre

au pair semantics

spanish
Spanish

gringo nachos

mustang enchilada

ranch chili

bronco taco

italian
Italian

lasagna mafia

pasta fiasco

salami inferno

japanese
Japanese

judo bonsai

tycoon karate

karaoke geisha

kamikaze hara-kiri

yiddish
Yiddish

kosher to schlep

bagel to schwitz

german1
German

kindergarten leitmotif

zeitgeist angst

gestalt festschrift

pretzel weltanschauung

schnaps poodle

strudel to yodel

compounding
Compounding

fire extinguisher streamline

lipstick skyline

railroad airplane

jet lag airport

junk food space shuttle

lifestyle to skydive

roller blades to outsource

affixation
Affixation

transoceanic postmodernism

transcontinental postcolonialism

trans-Siberian postgraduate study

transliterate post doc

prenatal decode

preschool defrost

preregistration deflate

prehistoric debunk

blends
Blends

brunch Frisco

motel Amtrack

chunnel trafficator smog fantabulous

snark chortle

brand names
Brand names

sandwich shrapnel

kodak boycott

cola limousine

camembert tabasco

acronyms
Acronyms

Radar radio detecting and ranging)

AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom

OPEC Organization of Petrolium Exporting Countries

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

metaphor
Metaphor

hardware garbage can

mouse desktop

memory file

language window

program email

spyware firewall

virus antivirus

phonological changes
Phonological changes

Flapping of [t] in American English:

ladder

matter

writer

spelling pronunciations
Spelling pronunciations

forehead

clapboard

calm, psalm, palm, balm

chalk, folk

strong weak verbs
Strong-weak verbs

OLD NEW

abide abode abided

mow mew mowed

saw sew sawed

strive strove strived

swell swoll swelled

Thrive throve thrived

relative pronoun
Relative pronoun
  • Which can no longer be used with a human antecedent.

2. Which and that mark the contrast between restrictive and non-restrictive relatives.

3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is obligatory.

(1) *He talked to the man __ bought our company.

(2) He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street.

prepositions and conjunctions
Prepositions and conjunctions

(1) granted, pending

(2) in front of, on the basis of

(3) assuming that, given that

(4) on grounds that, in view of the fact that

Standard use New common use

convince of convince about

married to married with

take charge of take charge over

in search of in search for

passive progressive
Passive progressive

(1) My car is being broken.

(2) My house is being painted.

(3) This problem is being discussed at today’s meeting.

(1’) My car is repairing.

(2’) My house is painting.

(3’) This problem is discussing today’s meeting.

get passive
Get passive

(1) The walls were painted.

(2) The walls got painted.

gonna future
Gonna future

I am going to marry Bill.

[i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill]

I [am going [to marry [Bill]]].

>>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]]

lexical expressions and grammatical markers
Lexical expressions and grammatical markers

Lexical Grammatical

noun prepositions

verbs conjunctions

adjectives pronouns

auxiliaries

bound morphemes

grammaticalization
Grammaticalization

Source Target: AUX

go (motion) gonna

will (intention) will

have (possession) have

grammaticalization1
Grammaticalization

Source Target: P

during (verb) during

in front of (PP) in front of

a-gone (PRE-verb) ago

grammaticalization2
Grammaticalization

Source Target: CONJ

by cause (PP) because

DEM while SUB while

given given

grammaticalization3
Grammaticalization

Source Target: PRO/ART

some body (NP) somebody

one (numeral) the one

one (numeral) a

grammaticalization4
Grammaticalization

Source Target: Discourse

do you know y‘know

I think (I) think

I guess (I) guess

grammaticalization5
Grammaticalization

Source Target: Bound

NOUN -ly

NOUN -hood

did -ed

grammaticalization6
Grammaticalization

Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

There is at least one other class for the development of grammatical markers: demonstratives.

Demonstratives provide a frequent historical source for a wide variety of grammatical expressions: articles, relative and third person pronouns, sentence connectives, copulas, directional preverbs, focus markers etc.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives1
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives2
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, denerheute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives3
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

There is no evidence from any language that demonstratives developed from lexical expressions.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives4
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

Are demonstratives grammatical markers?

the grammaticalization of demonstratives5
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

Demonstratives function to establish joint attention, which is one of the most fundamental functions of human communication.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives6
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

Demonstratives have a special status in language: They are part of the basic vocabulary of every language.

the grammaticalization of demonstratives7
The grammaticalization of demonstratives

lexical expressions

demonstratives

lexical

grammatical markers

grammaticalization and linguistic theory
Grammaticalization and linguistic theory
  • Grammaticalization is of central signifiance for the theory of language:
  • Challenges rigid division between lexicon and grammar.
  • Suggests that grammar is a dynamic model.
  • Supports the hypothesis that grammatical categories have a prototype structure.