MODERN BUSINESS ENGLISH. Tamara A.Susetyo-Salim. Manjemen Informasi & Dokumentasi FAKULTAS ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUDAYA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA. Compound and Other Nouns – Plural Forms . PLURAL OF COMPOUND NOUNS.
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Manjemen Informasi & Dokumentasi
FAKULTAS ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUDAYA
A compound nounconsists of two or more words used together as one name. Compound nouns are formed in several ways; for example:
TWO NOUNS :
NOUN PLUS DESCRIPTIVE PHRASE:
Payday sandwich takeover grandchild
Paydays sandwiches takeovers grandchildren
Carbon copy money order car wash coffee break
Carbon copies money orders car washes coffee breaks
Account payable letter of credit sister-in-law
Accounts payable letters of credit sisters-in-law
get-together hang up write-off drive-in
get-togethers hang-ups write-offs drive-ins
attorney general court-martial
attorneys general courts-martial
OR attorney generals ALSO court-martial
1. footnote 1._______________________
2. credit card 2. _______________________
3. Counteroffer 3. _______________________
4. brother-in-law 4. _______________________
5. Wristwatch 5. _______________________
6. board foot6 6. _______________________
7. aftershock 7. _______________________
8. cross-reference 8. _______________________
9. account receivable 9. _______________________
10. mainstay 10. _______________________
3. Most Abbreviations. For most abbreviations, form the plural by adding s to the singular abbreviation.
apt. dept. mo. yr. hwy. pkg. mgr. No.
apts. depts. mos. yrs. hwys. pkgs. mgrs. Nos.
CPA Ph.D. YWCA M.D. VIP VCR
CPAs Ph.D.s YWCAs M.D.s VIPs VCRs
c.o.d. f.o.b. M.Ed.
c.o.d.’s (BUT : CODs) f.o.b.’s M.Ed.’s
Cross t’s dot I’s u’s or v’s
A few Cs some Ds Ps and Qs
Some students' report cards contain nothing but A's and B's. (not: Some students' report cards contain nothing but A's and Bs.)
For symbols and for numbers written in figures, add only an s to form the plural.
&s #s 5s 20s 1900s
Following the rules for other nouns, add s or es to form the plurals of numbers written in words.
fives sixes twenties nineteen hundreds
Ifs, ands, or buts yeses and noes
ins and outs whys and wherefores
However, use an apostrophe and 5 if the plural form is unfamiliar or is likely to be misread.
or s or nors that's and which's
If a word already contains an apostrophe, add only an .v to form the plural.
can'ts don'ts haven'ts shouldn'ts
ft (foot or feet) 1 ft 6 ft
in (inch or inches) 1 in 3 in
oz (ounce or ounces) 1 oz 12 oz
Other customary units have two widely used plural forms, but the trend is to use the form without the s. Also note the trend toward omitting periods.
lb OR lbs 7 lb OR 7 lbs
qt OR qts 4 qt OR 4 qts
yd OR yds 3 yd OR 3 yds
p. (page) p. 25
pp. (pages) pp. 25-30
f (and the following page) pp. 18 f.
ff, (and the following pages) pp. 12 ff.
five hundred 16 dozen one million
four score 12 gross one dozen
three thousand $10 million one hundred
Although abbreviations are frequently used in technical writing, tabulations, and business forms, most terms are written in full in letters, memos, and other documents. Such abbreviations as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Jr., c.o.d., a.m., and FBI are customarily abbreviated in all types of communications.
12. v. (verse) 12. _________________
13. one million 13. _________________
14. yes 14. _________________
15. A and B 15. _________________
16. p. (page) 16. _________________
17. L (the letter) 17. _________________
18. Form 1040 18. _________________
19. RN (Registered Nurse) 19. _________________
20. bbl (barrel) 20. _________________
21. u (the letter) 21. _________________
22. in (inch) 22. _________________
23. five 23 23. _________________
24. no 24 24. _________________
25. why 25 25. _________________
11. Proper Nouns Ending in cb, sb, s, x, or z. If a proper noun ends in cb, sb, s, x, or z, form the plural by adding es to the singular noun.
Lynch Wals Willis Max Hertz
Lynches Walshes Willises Maxes Hertzes
Also, note that a proper noun such as French or Dutch is plural when it refers to the people of a country. However, if it is the name of a person, form the plural by adding es: Frenches or Dutches, for example.
For the following names, change the y to i and add es if the word Mountains is omitted:
Rocky Mountains Smoky Mountains Allegheny Mountains
the Rockies the Smokies the Alleghenies
Barbara German Dakota Kelly Riley
Barbaras Germans Dakotas Kellys Rileys
Mesdames or Mmes., the plural of Mrs., is used frequently in listing the names of married women with different surnames: Mesdames (or Mmes.) Barnes, Carlson, and Davis. Mrs. is more often used when married women have the same surname: the Mrs. Ed-sons.
Either Mses. or Mss. may be used as the plural of Ms. This title, in either its singular or its plural form, may be used with names of women, regardless of their marital status. However, if a married woman uses her husband's first name or initials instead of her own, the title Mrs. should be used (for example, Mrs. David Suarez, not Ms. David Suarez).
Messrs., the plural of Mr., is the abbreviation of Messieurs and is followed by a period. This title is correctly used in addressing a professional partnership composed entirely of men (for example, Messrs. James Hubbard and Robert Shannon, Attorneys-at-Law). However, if a company or corporate name includes the names of persons, do not use Messrs, before the personal names.
INCOREECT : Messrs. Boyd and Warren, Inc.
Messrs. R. K. Lloyd & Co.
CORRECT : Boyd and Warren, Inc.
R. K. Lloyd & Co.
Mr. J. R. Collins
Mr. W. L McCormick
90 West Waters Avenue
Tampa, R 33615
A. The following sentences show applications of die rules for forming plurals of compound nouns. As you read each sentence, give particular attention to the italicized nouns. The numbers following them refer to the rules presented in this unit.
1. The regional managers²are working on their sales budgets².
2. Sky marshals² have been assigned to prevent sky-jackings¹.
3. Those flashlights¹will be needed in case of blackouts¹.
4. My brothers-in-law² are enrolled in different junior colleges².
5. Some drugstores¹ sell everything from toothbrushes1 to lawn chairs².
6. Do book clubs²offer publications at lower prices than bookstores?¹
7. Both their daughters-in-law²and their grandchildren^ spent the day at an amusement park.
5 lb potatoes8.
1 L gasoline8.
2 pkgs. of chewing gum3.