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Early Modern English. Loan words 101 By, Meaghan Riemer. Background info. Associate this stage with the Renaissance - think Shakespeare, and Milton, Marlowe and Jonson The period extends from 15th century to the 18th century

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Early modern english

Early Modern English

Loan words 101

By,

Meaghan Riemer


Background info
Background info.

  • Associate this stage with the Renaissance - think Shakespeare, and Milton, Marlowe and Jonson

  • The period extends from 15th century to the 18th century

  • Don’t forget that Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492

  • If you thought there were a lot of loan words for Middle English, then you never considered those in Early Modern English


Why so many loan words
Why so many loan words?

  • English does not make the cut compared to fluidity of Latin, Italian, Greek, French and the like


Expanding world of vocabulary
Expanding world…of vocabulary

  • By language

  • By use - in other words law, home, art, drama, science, money, products, trade

  • Beyond the old categories of middle English new ones emerged


Thank you latin
Thank you Latin

  • Two thirds of all the loan words of the period are borrowed/taken from Latin

  • Entry to the great ancient Greeks


Some latin loan words
Some Latin Loan Words

  • Dissonance- taken from the Latin word dissonantia

  • Some quotes in Early Modern English- 1597-98 Bp. Hall “The Translation of one of Persius his Satyrs into English the difficultie and dissonance shall make good my assertion. - 1634 Milton “The…roar…filled the air with barbarous dissonance.


One more for good measure
One more for good measure

  • Trope-taken from the Latin tropus

  • It is a figure of speech- 1573 Tusser- “Christmas is onely a figure or trope”

  • Or by 1603- a short distinctive cadence at the close in a melody

  • Or in 1677- the turning of the sun at the tropic


A greek word
A Greek Word

  • Hellenize

  • 1613- Purchas “The hellenists were so called hellenizing or vsing the Greek tongue in their synagogues


Let s not forget about continental europe
Let’s not forget about Continental Europe

  • Like in Middle English many borrowed words from England’s closest neighbors-France, Italy, the Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese


A few on loan from france
A few on loan from France

  • Abolish - Fr. aboliss-

  • Assets - Anglo-French assets

  • Bigot- a hypocritical professor of religion, a hypocrite…generalized beyond religion in 1687


Of course some from italy
Of Course, some from Italy

  • Ballot- Ballotta-“Boxes, into whiche, if he wyll, he may let fall his ballot that no man perceiue hym”

  • Rocket- roccheta

  • Argosy- Ragusea, pl. Ragusee, i.e. una (nave or caracca) Ragusea, a Ragusan (vessel or carack)-1577DEEMem. Perf. Art Navig. 9 Ragusyes, Hulks, Caruailes, and other forrein rich laden ships. 1587FLEMINGContn. Holinsh. III. 313/2 A great argosie..hauing streamers and flags verie warlike, with two boats at either sterne. 1590GREENEWks. (Gros.) VII. 224 All the Argoses, Gallyes, Galeons, and Pataches in Venice.


Spanish and portuguese words
Spanish and Portuguese words

  • Potato-from Spanish potata which was adapted from the Haitian batata

  • Hurricane-from Spanish huracan

  • Coco or cocoa- first used by Vasco da Gama in 1498 (coquos)- the malay’s called it tenga…but the Portuguese named it quoquos


Now for the fun words
Now for the fun words

  • Chintz- from the Hindi word Chint

  • Assassin-from arabic for hashish eaters

  • Damn- as in “Not worth a damn” and the like - taken from the Hindi word for a coin-dawm


More words taken from english explorations
More words taken from English Explorations

  • Skunk-taken from the American Indian tribe Abenaki- segankw, segongw- first used in 1634

  • Cash- ad. (ultimately) Tamil ksu (‘or perhaps some Konkani form of it’), name of a small coin, or weight of money:Skr. karsha ‘a weight of silver or gold equal to of a tul’ (Williams); Singhalese ksi coin. The early Portuguese writers represented the native word by cas, casse, caxa, the Fr. by cas, the Eng.


Oops i forgot about the dutch
Oops- I forgot about the Dutch

  • Daffodil - Latin species name is aphelosus-the d probably added because of the Dutch and Flemish said t’affodil - thus the t sound morphed into the d sound eventually

  • Filibuster-taken from the Dutch vrijbuiter- 1587 Garrad Arte Warre (1591) 236 Such..as bring wares to the campe, he [the High Marshall of the Field] must take order that they be courteously..vsed..procuring them a conuoy..to the intent they may..remaine..satisfied, without suspect of being robbed..of theeues and flibutors. Ibid. 154 Clearing..the hye wayes..from fleebooters.


References
References:

  • Crystal, David. The Stories of English. Woodstock, NY, Overlook Press, Inc: 2004

  • Oxford English Dictionary Online