Major Components of ICP-AES. Sample Delivery System - pump, nebulizer, spray chamber Inductively Coupled Plasma - torch, RF generator Spectrometer - Monochrometer, photomultiplier tube. Plasma. Plasma source provides atomization
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Major Components of ICP-AES Sample Delivery System - pump, nebulizer, spray chamber Inductively Coupled Plasma - torch, RF generator Spectrometer - Monochrometer, photomultiplier tube
Plasma • Plasma source provides atomization • Plasma: “a gas-like phase of matter that consists of charged particles”2 • ICP-AES plasma source is from the carrier gas
Poor Detection Limits on Certain Trace Elements • Examples of interferences include: • 40Ar16O on the determination of 56Fe • 38ArH on the determination of 39K • 40Ar on the determination of 40Ca • 40Ar40Ar on the determination of 80Se • Solution: the cold/cool plasma
1980 1993 1997 radial radial axial As 193 150 50 5 Cd 214 3 2 0.3 Cr 267 5 2 0.2 Ni 231 10 5 0.7 Pb 220 50 10 0.8 Zn 231 2 1 0.1 Limits of Detection Decrease in limits of detection over the course of time using examples of Perkinelmer ICP emission Spectrometers ICP/5000 (1980), Optima 3000 (1993), Optima 3000 XL (1997) All detection limits were determined by the blank method using the statistical factor K = 3 [concentrations in micrograms per liter]