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Objectives. Explain the beginnings of Industrialization in Britain Enclosure system, crop rotation Describe key inventions that furthered Industrialization Watt- steam engine Stephenson- rocket McAdam - road system. Chapter 25 Section 1. The Industrial Revolution.

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  • Explain the beginnings of Industrialization in Britain
    • Enclosure system, crop rotation
  • Describe key inventions that furthered Industrialization
    • Watt- steam engine
    • Stephenson- rocket
    • McAdam- road system
chapter 25 section 1

Chapter 25 Section 1

The Industrial Revolution

the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution

Changed way lived & worked.

  • From farming to manufacturing based econ.
    • Cottage industry - Old
    • Factories - New
  • Key factors made Britain the ideal place for the IR to start.
agriculture revolution
Agricultural practices in 18th c

More farmland

good weather

new crops - potato

Improved farming methods

Crop rotation

Jethro Tull: The seed drill

Agriculture Revolution
agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution
    • Better food production
    • More crops at a lower price 
    • Population grew




“Enclosed” Lands

  • Enclosure: process of taking over and fencing off land
enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement
  • Better food production
    • Population grew
    • Leads to enclosure
  • Enclosure movement:
      • Peasants forced off land
      • Fewer workers needed
        • people moved to towns for work
        • supply of labor
economic conditions
Economic Conditions
  • Supply of Markets
    • Colonial empires
    • Easy transportation to markets
    • Increased population = increased demand
    • Wealthy people w/$ to spend
    • Many markets to sell goods
    • Change from “cottage industry” to factories
  • Factors of Production
    • Resources needed to produce goods
      • Land (natural resources)
        • Coal & iron ore
          • Manufacturing
          • Steam engines - coal
      • Labor
        • Workers (plenty Ag Rev.)
          • Mine coal & run machines
      • Capital
        • $$$$
        • Factories and Machines
    • Britain had supply & made money
    • $$$ to invest in machines & factories
changes to the textile industry
Changesto the Textile Industry
  • Factories
    • Developed b/c new machinery too big for home
    • Located near water sources for power
        • What problems can come from this?
inventions in the textile industry
Inventions in the Textile Industry
  • Flying Shuttle:
    • increased weaving production
  • Spinning Jenny:
    • spun multiple threads at same time
inventions in the textile industry1
Inventions in the Textile Industry
  • Power loom:
    • mechanized loom
      • power made operation completely automatic
inventions in the textile industry2
Inventions in the Textile Industry
  • Water frame:
    • waterpower to increase spinning
transportation revolution
  • McAdam Roads
    • John McAdam
    • Large rocks for drainage
    • Layer of smooth crushed rock on top
    • Heavy wagons could travel in the rain
  • Other new transportation
    • Canals to connect rivers
    • Stronger bridges
transportation new technology
Transportation: New Technology
  • James Watt
    • steam engine
      • key power source
    • An energy revolution
        • Coal to power steam engine
transportation new technology1
Transportation: New Technology
  • Steam Locomotive and Railroads
  • Steamboats to travel the waterways
changing history
Changing History
  • The IR was a long, slow process
    • simple tools complex machines.
    • New energy sources human and animal power.
  • People lived in small villages.
    • Cottage Industry
  • Now people live in the cities
    • Work in factories
    • Eliminated the “Cottage Industry”
chapter 25 section 2

Chapter 25 Section 2

Changes caused by

The Industrial Revolution

  • Describe the social effects of Industrialization
  • Urbanization, cottage industry, factory life
changes in europe
Main Idea: Industrialization caused many changes in


What were your predictions for change?

Growth of Population and Cities

Industrial Classes form

Living conditions

Working conditions

Changes in Europe
growth of population and cities
Growth of Population and Cities
  • Population grew
    • London’s population had grown to 1 mil.
    • Increased food supply better fed & healthier
  • Cities begin to be homes to factories
    • people began to move to find jobs
  • Urbanization city building &

the movement of people to cities

new industrial classes
Middle Class:

merchants, Factory owners, wealthy farmers

Claimed most of the wealth from the revolution

Lived comfortably in the suburbs

Working Class:

Laborers in factories

Poor, lived in slums of the city

lived in tenements

(multi-story building w/small apartments)

New Industrial Classes

Original classes: Nobles and peasants

living conditions
Living Conditions
  • rapid growth & limited space
    • living conditions were terrible for many
  • No plans or building codes
  • No protection – police
  • Poor people lived in small houses in cramped streets.
living conditions1
Living Conditions
  • Tenements
    • No running water
    • No sewage or sanitation system
    • Waste and garbage rotted in the streets
    • Disease was widespread
improvements to the cities
Improvements to the Cities
  • Paved Streets
  • Street lights
  • Police & fire forces
  • Underground sewage systems
  • Steel to construct buildings (skyscrapers)
working conditions
Working Conditions
  • machines running as much as possible
    • 12-15 hour days
    • 6 days a week
  • Workers not allowed to speak to each other
  • Pay was very low 17 ½ to 25 cents an hour
    • Women & children were paid much less
turn of the century working conditions
Turn of the century working conditions
  • Many accidents (no safety devices)
    • Sick or injured = lose of job
  • Save money in factories
    • Dangerous conditions
      • Not well lit
      • Dirty
      • No safety devices
    • No aid for injury – lost job
      • diseases
factories child labor
Factories: Child Labor
  • Why Child Labor
    • Smaller hands/quicker moving
    • Did the jobs adults were too big for
    • Families needed the wages children brought home
factories child labor1


Beaten or whipped to keep working

Could pay kids less to do work that was easy to accomplish

no consideration for their safety.

Factories: Child Labor
child labor punishment
Child Labor: Punishment
  • One common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted."
    • An overseer would tie a heavy weight to worker's neck and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example." This could last up to an hour.
  • Women
    • Employed as spinners, did cleaning, miners, etc
    • Easier to manage
    • Less pay
    • After work, tend to the family & all the problems of urban life
    • worked through pregnancy and even with young children
positive effects eventually
Positive Effects: Eventually
  • Created jobs
  • Nation wealthier
  • Progress in technology
  • Increased production
  • Raised the standard of living
  • Expanded education
  • laws for better wages & conditions
working class victories
Working Class Victories
  • Reforms to help laborers
    • Limits # of hours
    • couldn’t employ children under 10
    • Regulated safety in factories
    • Minimum wage laws
    • Improved public health and housing for workers
    • Education Act: public education for all children
    • 1830/40s pass laws regulating child labor