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5.2 - The consequences of the ‘development gap’. Identify and map the locations of extreme poverty in Africa Investigate income inequality in the named Megacity of Lagos. Identify how rapid development has exposed cultural differences with Bangalore

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5 2 the consequences of the development gap

5.2 - The consequences of the ‘development gap’

Identify and map the locations of extreme poverty in Africa

Investigate income inequality in the named Megacity of Lagos

  • Identify how rapid development has exposed cultural differences with Bangalore
  • Understand how the development gap can result from historical political systems in South Africa
5 2 1 the consequences for the poorest people1

5.2.1. The consequences for the poorest people

Where are there most poor people?

What does this graph suggest about the trends of poverty?

extreme poverty in africa
Extreme Poverty in Africa

Where are the areas with the highest extreme poverty?

Reasons for this pattern?

Are there any links ?


Sunita is one of the poorest in her village in Nepal. What impacts has the development gap had on her and why her especially?(p 149 handout and p200 parrot can help)

Social discrimination plays a significant role in keeping the most disadvantaged people in rural Nepal poor and marginalized. Excluded groups include smallholder farmers, landless labourers, lower castes, indigenous peoples and women. Discrimination on the grounds of caste is officially illegal in Nepal but is in fact widespread, especially in rural areas. Members of the lowest caste (dalits, or untouchables) are the most disadvantaged group. Many lower caste dalits work as wage labourers for higher-caste farmers. There is a wide gap between women and men when it comes to access to health, nutrition, education and participation in decision-making. Infant mortality is much higher for girls, and illiteracy is far more common among women than men. Many rural women live in severe poverty, without any means of improving conditions for themselves and their families. Within households women often have less to eat than men. Insufficient calorie intake can lead to chronic malnutrition in the infants they feed. Lack of economic opportunity and the recent conflict resulted in many of the most productive members of households to migrate and leave the villages. As a result more and more women have been heading households alone and taking on the burden of sustaining the rural economy. Women constitute more than 60 per cent of the agricultural labour force but have little access to land, production technology and training. Poor families are often obliged to send their children to work rather than to school. In this way the poverty cycle is perpetuated into the next generation. It is estimated that about one quarter of the children in Nepal are engaged in some kind of family or wage labour.

income inequality in megacities
Income inequality in megacities

A Megacity is ......

Lagos is the biggest city in Nigeria and the 2nd largest in Africa. It is currently estimated to be the second fastest growing city in Africa


Why is there increasing poverty in megacities and what problems does it cause?

What problems do developing megacities face?



A UN-Habitat report in 2006 stated there was “concrete evidence that there are two cities within one city – one part of the urban population that has all the benefits of urban living, and the other part, the slums and squatter settlements, where the poor often live under worse conditions than their rural relatives.”

  • Poverty and lack of opportunity is often most acute in rural areas*
  • However, developing world megacities contain growing concentrations of urban poverty
  • Some 1 billion people live in urban slums, likely to grow to 2 billion by 2030
  • Slums often have:

Poorly built, shack housing

Limited and expensive water supply

Limited sanitation

Informal, unreliable employment

Lack of rubbish collection

Social problems such as disease, crime

Few services such as education and health

*see the rural urban data for Pakistan

and Guatemala on previous and next slides

what are the issues
What are the issues?
  • http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/politics/international_politics/spotlight+on+lagos+poverty+crisis/1546447
  • Make notes whilst watching the video:
  • Key facts and figures on growth rates etc
  • What issues are they suffering from in Lagos?
lagos sites
Lagos sites
  • http://www.irinnews.org/report/60811/
  • http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/lagos-inside-the-ultimate-megacity-1945246.html
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8473001.stm
why is there such huge variations in poverty in lagos
Why is there such huge variations in poverty in Lagos?

Using the resources provided answer the following exam question

  • Income inequality within megacities is a growing concern, analyse how far you agree with this statement using an example you have studied (12 marks)
  • Suggest ways in which the problems seen in megacities could be overcome using a variety of both global and local strategies (13 marks)
ethnic and religious dimensions
Ethnic and religious dimensions
  • Ethnic and religious minorities often suffer worse poverty than the wider population
  • The data for Guatemala show a large different between poverty rates for Native Indians and the White Hispanic population
  • Such differences can result from subtle prejudice, and direct discrimination and persecution
  • In South Africa, the long history of apartheid has left a legacy of stark differences between black and white populations
  • Often different ethnic groups live in different geographical areas e.g. white gated communities versus black townships in South Africa


What does this mean?

What do you know about it in South Africa?

the history
The History
  • Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times, but apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election in 1948
  • New legislation classified inhabitants into black, white, coloured and Indian
  • Blacks were stripped of their citizenship
  • The government segregated education, medical care, and other public services, and provided black people with services inferior to those of whites.
  • A series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders. As unrest spread and became more violent, state organizations responded with increasing repression and state-sponsored violence.
  • 1990 President began negotiations to end the Apartheid, culminating in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela.
an ethnic dimension to the gap

End of apartheid

An ethnic dimension to the gap?


page 194 197 oxford
Page 194-197 Oxford
  • What was apartheid?
  • Describe the recent civil unrest in South Africa.
  • Explain 5 reasons why inequality has got worse not better since the end of apartheid.
  • How is inequality showing itself?
  • In your opinion what priorities can the government put in place to ease the gap?
poverty reduction at a price
Poverty reduction at a price?
  • Social and Environmental Issues
  • Increased rural –v- urban inequality
  • Mass rural-urban migration and rise in urban slums
  • Increased air and water pollution from industry
  • Stress on forests and water supply as resource demands rise
  • Possibility of rising debt; financial crises
  • Social problems – urban crime and disease
  • Worker exploitation and human rights abuses
  • Breakdown of traditional family structures and community support
  • The pressing need to reduce poverty has led some countries to ‘go for growth’
  • Both China and India (and the ‘Asian Tigers’ before them) have opened their economies to world trade and investment
  • This has created employment, raised incomes and reduced poverty
the constraints
The constraints
  • India ahead on ‘attractiveness’, but others not far behind
  • Negative reaction in MEDCs
  • The lowest paid now earn $230 per month; rising training costs
  • Rapid growth has some negative impact on quality
  • Corruption & bureaucracy (16% of management time ) still a problem
constraints continued
Constraints continued….
  • Economic reform has stagnated –much of India has a ‘command’ economy
  • Gov spending on subsidies rather than investment
  • Infrastructure beyond major cities is poor
  • 13,000 MW /day power shortage

(Business Week, 2005)

  • Literacy = 61% compared to 91% in China

SOURCE: National Highways Authority of India

the bangalore effect
The Bangalore effect
  • Outsourcing or BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) and Off-shoring
  • 300,000 IT workers in Bangalore, 100, 000 in Chennai
  • IT accounts for 3-4% of GDP.
  • Karnataka State alone has 77 colleges = 29,000 graduates a year.

(World IT report,2005)

The Economist, 2005

a downside to asian globalisation
A downside to Asian globalisation:
  • Nike, Adidas and other TNCs admitting their factories are ‘grim’ !
  • Exploitation and child labour major issues
  • Rights of rural people in India swept aside
environmental concerns
Environmental concerns
  • World’s 5th largest carbon emissions (per capita less than 25% of world average)
  • Per capita rate expected to triple by 2025
  • Heavy reliance on ‘dirty coal’
environment impact asian brown cloud
Environment impact: Asian ‘brown cloud’
  • Partly resulting from rampant economic growth
  • Lack of regulation
  • UNEP estimates it threatens the lives of 1 million people
problems of economic growth
Problems of Economic Growth
  • Increased Consumerism
  • Increased consumption
  • Increased waste
  • Decreased energy resources
  • Widening the Development Gap
  • Slow economic growth
  • Poverty/ Debt/ no devpt.
  • Deindustrialisation in the North
  • Decline of Manufacturing employment
  • Industrial Restructuring

Problems of Economic Growth

  • Environmental Degradation
  • Overexploitation of resources/ farming
  • Soil Erosion
  • Cost cutting investment in LEDC’s
  • Loss of Biodiversity
  • Increased Pollution
  • Increased tourism but decreased environmental Quality
  • Uneven Balance of Power
  • TNC’s
  • Sweatshops
  • Unfair trade/ Trade Blocs
  • Identify the social, economic and environmental benefits and problems brought by Bangalore's growth
  • Should positive discrimination be encouraged to favour disadvantaged groups?
  • How does the cultural identities and systems in Bangalore increase the development gap within India?

Should newspapers allow marriage adverts in which a preferred caste is stated?