5.2 - The consequences of the ‘development gap’. Identify and map the locations of extreme poverty in Africa Investigate income inequality in the named Megacity of Lagos. Identify how rapid development has exposed cultural differences with Bangalore
Identify and map the locations of extreme poverty in Africa
Investigate income inequality in the named Megacity of Lagos
Come up with a flow diagram to show the poverty trap using these terms for each section:
Where are there most poor people?
What does this graph suggest about the trends of poverty?
Where are the areas with the highest extreme poverty?
Reasons for this pattern?
Are there any links ?
Sunita is one of the poorest in her village in Nepal. What impacts has the development gap had on her and why her especially?(p 149 handout and p200 parrot can help)
Social discrimination plays a significant role in keeping the most disadvantaged people in rural Nepal poor and marginalized. Excluded groups include smallholder farmers, landless labourers, lower castes, indigenous peoples and women. Discrimination on the grounds of caste is officially illegal in Nepal but is in fact widespread, especially in rural areas. Members of the lowest caste (dalits, or untouchables) are the most disadvantaged group. Many lower caste dalits work as wage labourers for higher-caste farmers. There is a wide gap between women and men when it comes to access to health, nutrition, education and participation in decision-making. Infant mortality is much higher for girls, and illiteracy is far more common among women than men. Many rural women live in severe poverty, without any means of improving conditions for themselves and their families. Within households women often have less to eat than men. Insufficient calorie intake can lead to chronic malnutrition in the infants they feed. Lack of economic opportunity and the recent conflict resulted in many of the most productive members of households to migrate and leave the villages. As a result more and more women have been heading households alone and taking on the burden of sustaining the rural economy. Women constitute more than 60 per cent of the agricultural labour force but have little access to land, production technology and training. Poor families are often obliged to send their children to work rather than to school. In this way the poverty cycle is perpetuated into the next generation. It is estimated that about one quarter of the children in Nepal are engaged in some kind of family or wage labour.
A Megacity is ......
Lagos is the biggest city in Nigeria and the 2nd largest in Africa. It is currently estimated to be the second fastest growing city in Africa
Why is there increasing poverty in megacities and what problems does it cause?
What problems do developing megacities face?
A UN-Habitat report in 2006 stated there was “concrete evidence that there are two cities within one city – one part of the urban population that has all the benefits of urban living, and the other part, the slums and squatter settlements, where the poor often live under worse conditions than their rural relatives.”
Poorly built, shack housing
Limited and expensive water supply
Informal, unreliable employment
Lack of rubbish collection
Social problems such as disease, crime
Few services such as education and health
*see the rural urban data for Pakistan
and Guatemala on previous and next slides
Using the resources provided answer the following exam question
What does this mean?
What do you know about it in South Africa?
(Business Week, 2005)
SOURCE: National Highways Authority of India
(World IT report,2005)
The Economist, 2005
Problems of Economic Growth
Should newspapers allow marriage adverts in which a preferred caste is stated?