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Life-Span Development Twelfth Edition. Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy. Emotions. Emotion: feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being

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life span development twelfth edition
Life-Span DevelopmentTwelfth Edition

Chapter 6:

Socioemotional Development in Infancy

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions
Emotions
  • Emotion: feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being
  • Biological and Environmental Influences:
    • Changes in baby’s emotional capacities with age
    • Development of certain brain regions plays a role in emotions
    • Emotions are the first language with which parents and infants communicate
    • Social relationships provide the setting for the development of a variety of emotions

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions1
Emotions
  • Early Emotions:
    • Primary Emotions: emotions that are present in humans and animals
      • Appear in the first 6 months
    • Self-Conscious Emotions: require self-awareness that involves consciousness and a sense of “me”
      • Appear between 6 months and 2 years of age
  • Ongoing debate about the onset of various complex emotions

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions2
Emotions
  • Emotional expressions are involved in infants’ first relationships
    • Positive interactions are described as reciprocal or synchronous
  • Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world
    • Three types of cries:
      • Basic cry
      • Anger cry
      • Pain cry
  • Two types of smiling:
    • Reflexive smile
    • Social smile

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions3
Emotions
  • Fear is one of a baby’s earliest emotions
    • Appears at about 6 months; peaks at about 18 months
  • Stranger Anxiety: occurs when an infant shows a fear and wariness of strangers
    • Emerges gradually, first appearing at about 6 months of age
    • Intensifies at about 9 months of age, escalating past the 1st birthday
  • Intensity of anxiety depends on:
    • Individual differences
    • Familiarity of the setting
    • Who the stranger is and how the stranger behaves

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions4
Emotions
  • Separation Protest: crying when the caregiver leaves
    • Due to anxiety about being separated from their caregivers
    • Typically peaks at about 15 months for U.S. infants
    • Cultural variations

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

emotions5
Emotions
  • Caregivers’ actions influence the infant’s neurobiological regulation of emotions
    • As caregivers soothe, it reduces the level of stress hormones
    • Swaddling
  • Infant gradually learns how to minimize the intensity of emotional reactions
    • Self-soothing
    • Self-distraction
    • Language (2nd year)
  • Context can influence emotional regulation
    • How should caregivers respond?

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

temperament
Temperament
  • Temperament: an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
  • Chess and Thomas’s Classification:
    • Easy child (40%)
    • Difficult child (10%)
    • Slow-to-warm-up child (15%)
    • Unclassified (35%)
  • Kagan classifies children based on inhibition to the unfamiliar
    • Shows stability from infancy to early childhood

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

temperament1
Temperament
  • Rothbart and Bates’s Classification:
    • Extraversion/surgency
    • Negative affectivity
    • Effortful control (self-regulation)
      • High-control children have successful coping strategies
      • Low-control children are disruptive and intensely emotional

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

temperament2
Temperament
  • Kagan: children inherit a physiology that biases them to have a particular type of temperament, but this is modifiable through experience
  • Biological Influences:
    • Physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments
    • Heredity has a moderate influence on temperament differences
    • Contemporary view: temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

temperament3
Temperament
  • Gender and Cultural Influences:
    • Parents may react differently to an infant’s temperament depending on gender
    • Different cultures value different temperaments
  • Goodness of Fit: the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

personality development
Personality Development
  • Three central characteristics:
    • Trust: Erikson believed the 1st year is characterized by trust vs. mistrust
      • Not completely resolved in the first year of life
      • Arises again at each successive stage of development
    • Development of a sense of self
      • Occurs at approximately 18 months
    • Independence through separation and individuation
      • Erikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social orientation
Social Orientation
  • Face-to-face play begins to characterize interactions at 2 to 3 months of age
    • Infants begin to respond more positively to people than objects
      • Still-face paradigm
    • Frequency of face-to-face play decreases after 7 months of age
  • Peer interactions increase considerably between 18 to 24 months of age
  • Increased locomotion skills allow infants to explore and expand their social world

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social orientation1
Social Orientation
  • Perceiving people as engaging in intentional and goal-directed behavior occurs toward the end of the 1st year
    • Joint attention and gaze following
  • Social Referencing: “reading” emotional cues in others to determine how to act in a particular situation
    • Emerges by the end of the 1st year; improves during the 2nd year

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

attachment
Attachment
  • Attachment: a close emotional bond between two people
  • Theories of Attachment:
    • Freud: infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction
    • Harlow: contact comfort preferred over food
    • Erikson: trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care
    • Bowlby: newborns are biologically equipped to elicit attachment behavior from caregivers

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide16

Infant monkey fed on cloth mother

24

.

Infant monkey fed on wire mother

.

.

.

.

.

18

.

Hours per day spent with cloth mother

.

Contact Time with Wire and Cloth Surrogate Mothers

12

.

Mean hours per day

.

6

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Hours per day spent with wire mother

0

1-5

11-15

21-25

6-10

16-20

Age (in days)

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

attachment1
Attachment
  • Four Phases:
    • Phase 1 (birth to 2 months): infants direct their attention to human figures
    • Phase 2 (2 to 7 months): attachment becomes focused on one figure
    • Phase 3 (7 to 24 months): specific attachments develop
    • Phase 4 (24 months on): children become aware of others’ feelings and goals, and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions
  • Infants develop an internal working model of attachment

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

attachment2
Attachment
  • Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment
  • Attachment Classifications:
    • Securely attached: explores environment while using caregiver as a secure base; displays mild discomfort when caregiver leaves
    • Insecure avoidant: avoids caregiver; shows no distress/crying when caregiver leaves
    • Insecure resistant: clings to caregiver and protests loudly and actively if caregiver leaves
    • Insecure disorganized: disorientation; extreme fearfulness may be shown even with caregiver
  • Ainsworth’s research is criticized for being culturally biased

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide19

Avoidant

Secure

70

Resistant

60

Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment:

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation applied to infants in three countries in 1988

50

40

30

20

10

Percentage of infants

0

U.S.

Germany

Japan

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

attachment3
Attachment
  • Interpreting Differences in Attachment:
    • Attachment is an important foundation for later psychological development
    • Early attachment can foreshadow later social behavior
    • Early secure attachment is not the only path to success because children are resilient and adaptive
      • Later experiences also play an important role
    • Genetics and temperament play a role in attachment differences
    • Attachment varies among different cultures of the world

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts
Social Contexts
  • The Family:
    • Family is a constellation of subsystems
      • Each subsystem has a reciprocal influence on the other
    • Adjustment of parents during infant’s first years
      • Infant care competes with parents’ other interests
      • Marital satisfaction and relationship dynamics may change
    • Reciprocal socialization: two-way interaction process whereby parents socialize children and children socialize parents
      • Parent–infant synchrony: temporal coordination of social behavior
      • Scaffolding: parental behavior that supports children’s efforts through turn-taking sequences

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts1
Social Contexts

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts2
Social Contexts
  • Maternal and Paternal Caregiving
    • An increasing number of U.S. fathers stay home full-time with their children
    • Fathers can be as competent as mothers in caregiving
    • Maternal interactions typically center on child-care activities (feeding, changing diapers, bathing)
    • Paternal interactions tend to be play-centered
    • Fathers tend to be more involved when:
      • They work fewer hours (and mothers work more)
      • They are younger
      • The mothers report greater marital intimacy
      • The children are boys

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts3
Social Contexts

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts4
Social Contexts
  • Child Care
    • More children are in child care now than ever before
    • Parental-leave policies vary across cultures
      • The U.S. grants the shortest period of parental leave and is one of the few countries that offers only unpaid leave
    • Type of child care varies
      • Child care centers, private homes, etc.
    • Low-SES children are more likely to experience poor-quality child care

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

social contexts5
Social Contexts
  • National Institute of Child Health Study:
    • By 4 months, ¾ of infants were in some type of child care
    • Socioeconomic factors linked to amount and type of care
    • Quality of child care:
      • Group size, child–adult ratio, physical environment, caregiver characteristics
      • High-quality care resulted in better language and cognitive skills, more cooperation and positive peer interactions, and fewer behavior problems
    • Quantity of child care:
      • Extensive amounts of time in child care led to fewer positive interactions with mother, more behavior problems, and higher rates of illness
    • Influence of parenting was not weakened by extensive care

©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.