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## Geomagnetic Field and Particle Theory

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**CSI 662 / ASTR 769 Lect. 07**Spring 2007 Mainly By Bob Weigel on March 6, 2007 Supplemented By Jie Zhang on March 27, 2007 Geomagnetic Field and Particle Theory • References: • Prolss: Chap. 5.1 – 5.3, P. 209-240 (main reference) • Tascione: Chap. 1.6 – 1.12, P4 -- P9; Chap. 4.0 -- 4.7, P43 --P50 (supplement) • Gombosi: Chap. 1, P3 – P23 (supplement)**Fast and Slow Wind**Earth Magnetic Field • Geomagnetic Poles • Horizontal component • Vertical component • Shell parameter • Footpoints • Curvature**Fast and Slow Wind**Magnetic Indices • Measuring the variation of horizontal magnetic field • Dst index: low latitude, hourly, global network • Kp index: middle latitude (48° to 63°), 3-hour • AE index: high latitude (62° to 72°) within aurora zone, 1 minute, not global**Fast and Slow Wind**Gyro-motion**Fast and Slow Wind**Bounce Motion**Fast and Slow Wind**Drift Motion: Gradient Drift**Fast and Slow Wind**Drift Motion: Curvature Drift**Fast and Slow Wind**Drift Motion: E drift • Ambipolar E X B drift**Fast and Slow Wind**DPS relationship**Fast and Slow Wind**Adiabatic Invariants • Periodic motion can be characterized by a conserved quantity under adiabatic condition: • General form I=∫pdq, p and q are generalized momentum and coordinate • 1. Magnetic moment invariant -- Gyromotion I = ∫pperdrg • 2. Bounce invariant I = ∫ppardspar • 3. Longitudinal drift invariant (L shell) I = ∫pdrdrdf**Fast and Slow Wind**Magnetic Mirroring • Pitch angle • Mirror point • Loss cone