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Fungi. Basic characteristics of Fungi . Eukaryotic Multicellular (except yeast) Heterotrophic Mode of nutrition: absorbtive Secrete hydrolytic enzymes Digestion occurs externally Composition of cell walls differs-chitin. CHARACTERISTIC. Filamentous Growth Form 1. Hyphae a. stolons

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basic characteristics of fungi
Basic characteristics of Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular (except yeast)
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mode of nutrition: absorbtive
    • Secrete hydrolytic enzymes
    • Digestion occurs externally
    • Composition of cell walls differs-chitin
characteristic
CHARACTERISTIC
  • Filamentous Growth Form
  • 1. Hyphae
    • a. stolons
    • b. rhizoids
  • 2. Mycelium
    • a. If strung end-to-end would be many meters long
    • b. Surrounds and penetrates substrate
    • c. Composition of cell wall-Polysaccharide plus chitin (not cellulose)
      • 1. Same component of arthropod exoskeleton
      • 2. More resistant to bacterial degradation
economic value of fungi
Economic Value of Fungi
  • A.Harmful- Cause decay, rot, spoilage and serious plant and animal diseases
  • B. Beneficial
  • 1. Manufacture of bread and beer
  • 2. Flavor cheese, wine and other foods
  • 3. Industrial production of acids, antibiotics and chemical syntheses
  • 4. Detoxify environment
  • 5. Mycorrhizae facilitate absorption of essential nutrients by plant roots
fungal structures
Fungal Structures
  • Mycelium: Mostly underground; feeding body composed of interwoven:
    • Hyphae: threadlike structures
    • Septa: divide hypae into cells
    • Haustoria: tips of hyphae
  • Cell walls: chitin
  • Some are coenocytic (aseptate)
  • See fig. 31.1 and 31.2
life cycle reproduction
Life cycle/Reproduction
  • May be asexual or sexual
    • Some only have sexual repro in response to an environmental change
zygomycetes
ZYGOMYCETES
  • Structure
  • a. Hyphae
  • 1. Stolon-grow horizontally
  • 2. Rhizoids- grow down
  • 3. Sporangiophore-grow upward
  • b. Sporangium(2N)
  • 1. Form spores(N)
  • 2. Meiosis
basidiomycetes
BASIDIOMYCETES
  • 1. Types
    • a. Mushrooms, jelly fungi, puffballs, rusts and smuts
    • b. Include edible and poisonous varieties
    • 2. Reproduction
      • a. Sexual
      • b. Asexual reproduction rare in basidiomycetes
  • 3. Structures
    • a. Stipe
    • b. Gills
    • c. Cap
    • d. Annulus
ascomycetes
ASCOMYCETES
  • 1. Types
    • a. Beneficial forms include yeast, penicillin, morels and truffles, cheese mold, neurospera
    • b. Harmful forms include chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, Clavis purpurea-LSD
    • c. Reproduction
      • 1. Asexual reproduction is common
      • 2. Sexual
deuteromycetes
DEUTEROMYCETES
  • 1. Fungi that Have Lost the Ability to Reproduce Sexually
  • 2. Have great economic importance
    • a. Many are human and plant pathogens
        • 1. ring worm
        • 2. athletes foot
      • b. Others produce important chemicals including penicillin
  • V. Fungal Relatives
mycorrhizae
MYCORRHIZAE
  • b. Mycorrhizae
  • 1. General characteristics
  • a. Most plant roots associated with certain fungi
  • b. Fungus aids in transfer of soil nutrients into roots
  • c. Plant provides organic carbon to fungus
  • 2. Advantages of mycorrhizial associations
  • a. Plants more resistant to drought, cold and harsh conditions
  • b. May provide better protection against acid precipitation
  • c. Prevent accumulation of toxic metals
  • d. Speed germination of orchid seeds
  • e. Provide better growth in poor soils
  • f. Present in early fossil plants
  • g. Early soil lacking organic matter
fungal relatives
FUNGAL RELATIVES
  • A. Lichens
  • 1. General Characteristics
  • a. Mostly ascomycetes with green alga and/or cyanobacterium
  • b. Specialized hyphae penetrate or envelop photosynthetic cells
  • c. Fungal chemical signals direct photosynthetic metabolism
  • d. Could be considered a form of controlled parasitism
  • 2. Reproduction
  • a. Via normal fungal sexual processes
  • b. Photosynthetic cell reproduction generally asexual
  • c. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation
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3. Ecology
  • a. Inhabit cold, dry, generally harsh environments

b. Help break rock surfaces and prepare habitat for other organisms

  • c. Lichens with cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen
  • d. Survive adverse conditions by nearly halting metabolism
  • e. First growth on barren rock-leads to soil
  • 4. Lichens and Pollution
  • a. Extremely sensitive to atmospheric pollutants
  • b. Absorb substances dissolved in rain or dew
  • c. Sensitive to sulfur dioxide an automobile pollutant
  • d. Indicates radioactive pollution