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How can we deal with malnutrition in food assistance programs?. USDA & USAID International Food Aid Conference April 14-16, 2008 Martin Bloem Chief, Nutrition Service World Food Programme. Rice and food through the eyes of food policy and nutrition. Income. Food. Rice. Employment. Food

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how can we deal with malnutrition in food assistance programs

How can we deal with malnutrition in food assistance programs?

USDA & USAID International Food Aid Conference

April 14-16, 2008

Martin Bloem

Chief, Nutrition Service

World Food Programme

rice and food through the eyes of food policy and nutrition
Rice and food through the eyes of food policy and nutrition

Income

Food

Rice

Employment

Food

availability

Rice

Political

stability

International

trade

Plant/animal

foods

Intrahousehold

distribution

Grain/

cereals

Diversified

diet

Food

Micronutrients

Food

Food

fortification

Malnutrition

Food Policy

Nutrition

rice and food through the eyes of food policy and nutrition3
Rice and food through the eyes of food policy and nutrition

Staple

Food

Income

Rice

Employment

Food

availability

Rice

Political

stability

International

trade

Plant/animal

foods

Intrahousehold

distribution

Grain/

cereals

Balanced

diet

Food

Micronutrients

Food

Food

fortification

Malnutrition

Food Policy

Nutrition

slide10

Private

Sector

Bilateral

Institutions

Multilateral

Institutions

Development Banks

IMF

Manifestation

undernutrition

Immediate

Causes

Inadequate

Dietary Intake

Disease

Insufficient

Health Services &

Unhealthy Environment

Inadequate Care

for Mothers

and Children

Inadequate Access to Food

Underlying

Causes

Inadequate Education

Resources & Control

Human, Economic &

Organizational

Basic

Causes

Political and Ideological Superstructure

Economic Structure

Potential

Resources

the conceptual framework for underlying causes of malnutrition
The conceptual framework for underlying causes of malnutrition

Malnutrition

Food

Care

Health

slide13

“I’m one of the few nutritionists who believes in the revolutionary idea that lack of food is a cause of malnutrition”

-Michael Golden, at the SCN meeting, 2007

green revolution
Green Revolution
  • What is the role of the production of staple food (energy) on malnutrition
malnutrition rates and rice prices torlesse kiess and bloem j nutr 133 1320 1325 may 2003
Malnutrition rates and Rice pricesTorlesse, Kiess and BloemJ. Nutr. 133:1320-1325, May 2003
choices and economic status
Choices and economic status

Not poor

Rice

Rice and vegs

Rice, vegs, and eggs

Rice, vegs, eggs, meat

Less poor

Rice

Rice and vegs

Rice and eggs

Rice and meat

Rice

Rice and vegs

Rice and eggs

Moderate poor

Rice

Rice and vegs

Very poor

Very, very poor

Rice

non rice food expenditure and malnutrition torlesse kiess and bloem j nutr 133 1320 1325 may 2003
Non-rice food expenditure and malnutritionTorlesse, Kiess and BloemJ. Nutr. 133:1320-1325, May 2003
daily cost of a diet and income scf uk
Daily cost of a diet and income (SCF UK)
  • The research, carried out in four locations in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Myanmar and Tanzania, showed that between 15 (in Ethiopia) and 79 (in Bangladesh) per cent of households simply couldn't afford to feed their children a healthy diet.
  • The comparative cost of the diet compared with the equivalent average weekly earnings in the UK,
    • Bangladesh €2429 a week
    • Ethiopia € 967 a week
    • Myanmar € 834 a week
    • Tanzania € 847 a week
lessons learned
Lessons learned
  • Poverty is one of the key determinants of malnutrition
  • Poor people have limited access to micronutrient rich foods (non-grain component of total food expenditure).
nutrition and emergencies
Nutrition and Emergencies
  • Saving Lives:
    • Micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc, iron, etc)
  • Prevention and Treatment of Malnutrition
    • Complementary Foods
    • Ready to use supplementary food products
    • Ready to use therapeutic food products
micronutrient powders sprinkles
Micronutrient powders (sprinkles)
  • 1996: Dr. Stanley Zlotkin begins conceptual development of Sprinkles in response to a global initiative to control childhood anemia;
slide28
Joint Statement WHO/UNICEF/WFP: Preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in populations affected by an emergency
obstacles
Obstacles
  • Formulation
    • Malaria-endemic areas
    • Family, Child
    • Iron component
  • Production
    • Packaging
      • Family, child
      • Shelf life
      • Print
  • Educational material
    • Formative research
    • acceptability
slide35

FEEDING BETTER FOOD…

Nutrition Strategy

Corn Soy Blend

FORTIFICATION

2007

2010 - 2012

20% WFP

FOOD

FORTIFIED

100%+

MICRONUTRIENT

NEEDS MET

General Food Basket

Cereals, Pulses, Legumes, Vegetable Oil, Salt, CSB

+ micronutrients

COMPLEMENTARY FOODS

SPRINKLES

DSM is playing a critical strategic role in enabling WFP to launch the strategy at the global level.

effective programs
Effective programs
  • There is need for the
    • Use of the “right food and food products” which have proven to be effective in saving lives, and preventing and reducing malnutrition
    • Understanding of the different cultural and ecological settings of regions, countries and communities where we work
    • A long-term vision behind emergency responses to make these programs part of sustainable solutions both at local and global level.
paul farmer
Paul Farmer
  • "We've proven that people in poor settings with very complex diseases can be treated and cured,"
  • "We've had some victories,"
  • "But if I were truly influential, everyone in the world would have the right to healthcare, food, clean water, other basics. That's the goal."
slide40

March 2003

Source: Farmer, 2003