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Fall of Empires 1750-1914. Turkish Ottoman Empire. Reasons for the Decline of the Empire Opportunities to add new territories ran out because of strengthening military power of other Muslims and of Christians.

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turkish ottoman empire
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Reasons for the Decline of the Empire

  • Opportunities to add new territories ran out because of strengthening military power of other Muslims and of Christians.
  • Janissaries or soldiers did not pay attention to the new European weapons technologies and fell behind.
  • Russia seized territories in Asia.
  • Greece declared its independence in 1830 and Serbia in 1867.
  • Muhammad Ali made Egypt an autonomous region by 1820.
turkish ottoman empire3
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Reasons for the Decline of the Empire

  • Independent rulers collected their own taxes, so there was limited revenue for the central government.
  • European trade decreased because Europeans were focused on the Atlantic Ocean basin.
  • Because Ottoman empire produced mostly raw materials, they financed many of their commercial developments through Europe.
  • Capitulations allowed foreign governments to levy duties on goods sold in Ottoman ports.
turkish ottoman empire4
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Mahmud II’s Reforms

  • Mahmud II created system of education for boys to learn technology and military academics.
  • He established scientific, military, and technical academies.
  • He tried to transfer power from military elites to the sultan by taxing rural landlords and abolishing military land grants.
  • He constructed new roads, built telegraph lines, and a postal service.
turkish ottoman empire5
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Tanzimat’s Reforms

  • They drew inspiration from the Enlightenment ideas and constitutional foundations.
  • They established commercial codes, a penal code, a maritime code and a new civil code.
  • They issued decrees to safeguard the rights of subjects including public trials, rights of privacy and equality before the law, Muslim or not.
turkish ottoman empire6
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Young Turks

  • Exiled Ottoman subjects living in Paris promoted reform and used newspapers to spread the message.
  • They dethroned Abd al-Hamid in 1909 and established Mehmed Rashid as a puppet sultan.
turkish ottoman empire7
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Key Terms:

  • Capitulations – agreements that excluded European visitors from Ottoman law and provided them with extraterritoriality.
  • Extraterritoriality – the right to exercise jurisdiction over own citizens.
  • Young Turks – a party that wanted reform, universal suffratge, and emancipation for women.
turkish ottoman empire8
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Document:

Proclamation of the Young Turks ( page 910)

turkish ottoman empire9
Turkish Ottoman Empire

Impact of western revolutions:

  • Tanzimat reformers and Young Turks were both inspired by many Enlightenment and constitutional ideas of the American and French Revolutions.
  • During the reign of Abd al-Hamid reformers convinced him to accept a constitution that limited his authority and establish a representative government.
  • Even though this constitutional government was overthrown, it was later reinstated by the Young Turks.
russian empire
Russian Empire
  • Multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural empire from Poland to the Pacific.
  • Half the population spoke the Russian language or observed Russian Orthodox faith.
  • Autocratic government ruled by tsars.
  • Central administration
  • Russian orthodox church that owned most of the land
  • Peasant serfs made up half the population and were dependent on the land.
  • During the 19th century, Russia expanded into Manchuria, south into the Caucasus and central Asia, and southwest toward the Mediterranean.
russian empire11
Russian Empire

Reasons for the Decline:

  • The Crimean War showed that the Russian Empire could not match the industrial power of Europe.
  • Because Russia had an agrarian economy built on unfree labor, the empire was unable to support the tsar’s expansionist ambitions.
  • During the early 19th century, there were a series of serf revolts.
  • Even after serfs were emancipated and entered into factory work, working conditions remained inadequate and pay was poor.
russian empire12
Russian Empire

Reasons for the Decline:

  • A series of rebellions and terrorism culminating in the Bloody Sunday massacre in 1905. Petitioning workers who marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg resulted in 130 deaths.
  • Violence continued throughout the empire.
russian empire13
Russian Empire

Reforms:

  • In 1861, Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom, but very few of these peasants prospered and improved their position.
  • Alexander II intended to use his new labor force for emerging technologies.
  • Russian industrialization was motivated by political and military motives, rather than entrepreneurial initiative.
  • In 1867, laws were made to limit working day, but trade unions and strikes were not permitted.
influence of western revolutions
Influence of Western Revolutions
  • The Intelligentsia drew inspiration from western European socialism, but they despised the individualism, materialism, and capitalism of western Europe.
  • Most revolutionaries were anarchists who sought to destroy existing institutions they thought oppressed the people.
chinese empire
Chinese Empire
  • Reason for the Decline:
    • The Opium trade (from India to China) drained large quantities of silver from China and created serious social problems in southern China.
    • The Opium War showed the British naval superiority.
    • The Treaty of Nanjing and similar treaties in the future broadened concessions to foreign powers which meant foreign merchants controlled much of the Chinese economy.
    • Korea, Vietnam, and Burma (Myanmar) were released from Chinese authority.
chinese empire16
Chinese Empire

Reason for the Decline:

  • Large scale rebellions as a resulted of increasing poverty and discontent among peasants.
  • The Taiping Rebellion resulted in 20-30 million deaths causing massive declines in agriculture.
  • In 1805, France incorporated Vietnam, in 1886 Great Britain took Burma, in 1895 Korea became independent.
  • Boxer Rebellion (1899) intended to rid China of “foreign devils.”
    • 140,000 “Boxers” ceased embassies in Beijin in 1900. Armed forces from Britain, France, Russia, U.S., Germany, and Japan crushed the boxer movement.
chinese empire17
Chinese Empire
  • Reform Efforts
    • The Taiping reform program, initiated by Hong Xiuquan, called for abolition of private property, creation of communal wealthy, the prohibition of footbinding and concubinage, free public education, literacy for the masses, and equality of men and women.
    • Self Strengthening Movement sought to blend Chinese cultural traditions, including Confucianism, with European industrial technology.
    • The built modern shipyards, constructed railroads, established weapons industries, opened steel foundries and founded academies to develop scientific expertise.
chinese empire18
Chinese Empire

Impact of Western Revolutions

Some Taiping leaders called for the establishment of democratic political institutions and the building of an industrial society, but the embedded commitment to traditional Chinese values and Confucianism was too embedded.

chinese empire19
Chinese Empire

Impact of Western Revolutions

Some Taiping leaders called for the establishment of democratic political institutions and the building of an industrial society, but the embedded commitment to traditional Chinese values and Confucianism was too embedded.

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