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Summary(3) -- Dynamics in the universe --. T. Ohashi (Tokyo Metropolitan U) Instrumentation for dynamics Cluster hard X-rays X-ray cavities Dark matter dynamics Large-scale features. Strong gravity(BH, Darkmatter) Collision, Explosion, Jets, Magnetic fields etc. X-rays. g -rays.

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summary 3 dynamics in the universe

Summary(3)-- Dynamics in the universe --

T. Ohashi (Tokyo Metropolitan U)

Instrumentation for dynamics

Cluster hard X-rays

X-ray cavities

Dark matter dynamics

Large-scale features

science with next

Strong gravity(BH, Darkmatter)Collision, Explosion, Jets, Magnetic fields etc



Science with NeXT

High-energy universe

Global view of dynamical processes in the universe

Doppler spectroscopyMicrocalorimeter

Gas motion, Shocks

Hard X-ray imageSupermirror + imaging detector

Gas heating

Particle acceleration

g-ray spectrumCompton telescope


Cosmic rays

emission lines and doppler spectroscopy
Emission lines and Doppler spectroscopy

12 eV

  • Energy resolution of SXS DE~7 eV (or better)
  • Fe-K line complex resolved into resonance, intercombination, forbidden lines
  • Gas motion with v ~ 100 km s-1 resolved
cluster hard x rays
Cluster hard X-rays

Hard X-rays from 14 clusters

  • LHard ~ 1043 erg s-1 is reported from about 10 clusters
  • Merger systems tend to show hard X-ray emission
  • The detection is still controversial.Coma cluster(Fusco-Femiano et al 04 ⇔ Rossetti and Molendi 04)

Nevalainen et al. 04


cluster radio halos and relics


Lx (h=0.5)





Ensslin and Roettgering 02

Cluster radio halos and relics

A3667: Radio relic

Dn=3 GHz

Feretti astro-ph/0406090

expected hard x ray luminosity
Expected hard X-ray luminosity

Microwave background

  • Observed data → LRadio~1041-42 erg s-1
  • if B = 3 mG, then uB ~ uph ~ 0.3 eV cm-3→ sensitivity of LHard ~ 1041-42 erg s-1 is necessary to explore inverse Compton emission
  • This is about 100 times higher sensitivity, achievable with the supermirror instrument
  • If protons carry 100 times more energy than electrons (@ magnetic energy density), then non-thermal energy is a large fraction in clusters (equivalent to 1043-44 erg s-1)
x ray cavities
X-ray Cavities

HCG62 (Chandra):Morita et al. 06

MS0735.6+7421 (z=0.22)McNamara et al. 05


“Ghost cavity”

Hot gas displaced by radio lobes

Ghost cavities are X-ray cavities without radio lobes nor radio galaxy

non thermal pressure
Non-thermal pressure

Pressure to match gas pressure

  • k = Ratio of proton/electron energy density
  • f = filling factor (~1)
  • Required energy density >> u(magnetic field + electrons)
  • Large variation of k
  • All protons or extremely hot gas?



Dunn et al. 05

dark matter blobs



Dark Matter

Dark matter blobs

Cluster simulation: Eke et al. 98

Simulation under CDM scenario

  • Dark matter blobs are produced
  • In local group, only ~1/10 are detected as satellite galaxies
  • Blob velocity (groups): v = 100-1000 km s-1

Galaxy group simulation:Klypin et al. 99

motion of dark matter blobs
Motion of dark matter blobs

Weak lens mass (DM travels forward)

  • DM particles/blobs continue to move even after gas is relaxed
  • Dark matter blobs may carry significant fraction of energy


1E0657-56: Markevitch et al. 04


Evrard 1990 (line = velocity)

dm blobs may contribute to acceleration
Particle collision with DM blobs can cause Statistical Fermi acceleration

It is possible to accelerate particles within life of clusters

DM blobs may contribute to acceleration

Dark Matterblob



(V = 2000 km s-1, tcoll = 100 kpc/c = 1013 s)

Intracluster space

pointing vs survey
Pointing vs survey
  • Narrow field, high sensitivity: NeXT, Con-X, Xeus
  • Wide field, survey: eROSITA, MAXI, DIOS
  • Only a few % of the whole sky covered with CCD resolution
  • Truly large scale structures: cosmic web, Galactic hot gas, cluster survey etc
spectroscopy with microcalorimeters
Spectroscopy with microcalorimeters


Large 12x12 pix, f.l. = 6m 32 pix, f.l. = 9m

warm hot intergalactic medium
Warm-hot intergalactic medium

Expectation from DIOS

5 degree = 75 Mpc

Yoshikawa et al. 03

dynamics of galactic hot gas
Dynamics of galactic hot gas

Dynamics of hot galactic ISM: Galactic fountain

GSPC spectrum



Snowden et al. 95, ApJ 454, 643

Inoue et al. 79, ApJ 227, L85

suzaku to next decade
Suzaku to NeXT decade


  • Low background and wide-band sensitivity
  • Detection of non-thermal emission from bright objects


  • First image of non-thermal emission with >100 times higher sensitivity
  • Gas dynamics through X-ray spectroscopy, with low background soft g-ray detectors
  • Science of on-thermal universe will be much advanced

+ Wide field mission for complementary science