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Information Gathered from Hugh Ross’s Books about God of the Universe as well as the Science that runs the Universe. (1) The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator
Books about God of the Universe as well
as the Science that runs the Universe
(1) The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal
the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator
(2) The Genesis Question: Scientific Advances and the Accuracy
(3) Creation and Time: A Biblical and Scientific Perspective on
the Creation-Date Controversy
(4) The Creator and the Cosmos: How the latest Scientific
Discoveries Reveal God
(5) Beyond The Cosmos: The Extra-Dimensionality of God:
What Recent Discoveries in
Astrophysics Reveal about the Glory
and Love of God
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the
earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of
the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the
waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And
God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from
the darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness He
called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.
Initially, there was nothing, and then light was created. As it moved
out, away from the creation point, it became mass as electromagnetic
radiation was converted into mass in the form of the elementary particles
such as electrons, protons and neutrons. This is the “Big Bang” event
that is believed to have occurred at the beginning of time. As things
were formed, they all began moving away from the creation point and
outward in three dimensions. All scientists agree that Life on planet
earth originated in the oceans, where the Spirit of God was hovering, or
moving over the waters.
Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and
let it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the expanse,
and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters
which were above the expanse; and it was so. And God called the expanse
heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.
This is the beginning of the hydrological cycle that dominated the weather
on Earth, the condensation and evaporation of water gives the storms their
Then God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and
fruit trees bearing after their kind, with seed in them, on the earth”; and it
was so. And the earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed after
their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with seed in them, after their kind; and
God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning,
a third day.
This is the proper order of how life began on earth. There were plants before
any animals could be present as they were the food for the animals, which
initially were all herbivores living on plants. Note that it specifically stated that
seeds were present so that the plants could reproduce and spread after their
kind, in other words one species of plant could not change into another
species of plant.
Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to
separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons,
and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the expanse of the
heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. And God made the two
great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern
the night; He made the stars also. And God placed them in the expanse of
the heavens to give light on the earth, and to govern the day and the night,
and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.
And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.
The sun and stars had been created earlier, but from our viewing point on
earth nothing could be seen due to the heavy dense atmosphere. So at this
point the atmosphere was made transparent so that sun light could reach
the surface where plants needed the sun light for photosynthesis. The moon
was also created at this point, and that explains the atmosphere clearing,
from the collision that formed the moon. This would place the timing of the
fourth day about 4.25 billion years ago (slide 7).
Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and
let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” And God
created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that moves, with
which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its
kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Be
fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply
on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.
We know that life began in the oceans not on land, so it makes sense that
God would create creatures in the oceans first as well. The Great Sea
Monsters could be the dinosaurs, as they began first in the oceans, and
then moved on to land. When God saw how much they ate, and dominated
the earth, God did not want them to destroy His prized creation, so he
exterminated them by Flood Basalt volcanism (Daccon Flood Basalts, 65 MYr).
Note that with creatures of the sea God used the same wording, that they
would reproduce “after their kind”.
Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind:
cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and it
was so. And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle
after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and
God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image,
according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over
the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every
creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” And God created man in His own
image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.
And God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and
fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds
of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” Then God
said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface
of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food
for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and every
green plant for food”, and it was so. And God saw all that He made, and
behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the
Animals were created before man, who was introduced later to rule over and
control the other animals. Man has been responsible for many species going
extinct and is not controlled or threatened by any animal, Man is in charge of
Planet Earth. This is an assumed responsibility, and it is hard to live up to, and
as a species, we have failed!
Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. And by
the seventh day God completed His work which He had done; and He rested
on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed
the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work
which God had created and made. This is the account of the heavens and
the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earth
Biologically we find that we are not discovering any new species, which
would agree with the statement that God’s creating of different life forms has
ceased completely. All we see are slight variations occurring to compensate
for changes in our environment, which is what Darwin’s idea of evolution
states. We are still in the seventh day, which also tells us that the use of Yom
did mean long time periods not 24 hr days. God is waiting for his return to
Earth his creation; this will occur at the return of Jesus as foretold in the
book of revelation.
In 1642 Cambridge University Vice-Chancellor John Lightfoot calculated a date for
the creation of the universe of September 17, 3928 BC, based upon the genealogies
in Genesis, Exodus, 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Chronicles. This was corrected in
1650 by James Ussher, an Anglican archbishop in Ireland, making it
October 3, 4004 BC. These dates and time scale were widely backed by the church
for many years, driving many scientists and other people away from God!
In 1961 Henry Morris, a civil engineering Professor and John Whitcomb, a theology
Professor, published a book entitled The Genesis Flood, in 1963 the Creation
Research Society (CRS) was formed to push the young-earth teaching. By 1970
the teaching of evolution became legal in all states, the Institute for Creation
Research was established in 1972 to push the idea of a young earth and God’s
creation of the earth. With these dates, the Earth must be 6,000 years old in 2004!
The Hebrew word yom is used in Genesis for day, and in Hebrew it has three
meanings; (a) sunrise to sunset, (b) sunset to sunset, (c) a segment of time without
any reference to solar days (anywhere from weeks to a year to several years to an
age or epoch). It cannot be used for infinite time, but only for a specific time period.
How do the ages that are found by Science agree with these “ideas of young age”
that are being pushed by the young earth creationists?
All Matter consists of Elementary Particles, called Atoms, which
are composed of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. (P+, N or n, e-)
(A proton is normally designated as 1H)
Neutrons are unstable outside of the Nucleus, where they are
combined with protons and held together by the strong Nuclear
Force, without being combined with a proton, a Neutron is
unstable, and decays by a “Radioactive Decay” process.
n P+ + e- + Energy or n 1H + e- + Energy
This process is called Beta decay and occurs when ever there
are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom. A “Beta” particle
is nothing more than a high speed (Energy!) electron, normally
traveling at a speed of a fraction of the speed of light
( 3.7 x 108m/s) with an energy of millions of electron volts.
Neutron Capture – Long Time Scale – Star – Hydrogen Burning
This process is called Nuclear Fusion and is the source of
Energy in Stars such as our sun!
1H + 1H 2H + b+
( b+ = a positive electron, or positron, a particle of anti-matter!)
( 2H = Deuterium, a “Heavy” isotope of Hydrogen, containing
one Proton and one Neutron)
When anti-matter and normal matter come into contact with each
other, they destroy each other, producing energy in the form of
e- + b+ 2 g ( 511 kev)
Radioactive decay – There are several forms of radioactive
decay, we will only consider two:
Alpha decay – Heavy elements, Uranium and Thorium etc.
238U 4a+ 234Th +Energy
Beta decay – Neutron rich Isotopes
14C b- + 14N + Energy
The Neutrons that are produced by the previous nuclear reactions
are captured by other isotopes producing neutron rich isotopes.
Some of these isotopes are not stable due to the large numbers of
Neutrons and they undergo beta decay, where a neutron decays
into a proton, producing a new element! Several examples are
given below, and on the following slides.
13C(n,g)14C (Radioactive, 5730 year T1/2) 14C b- + 14N
15N(n,g)16N (Radioactive, 7.1 sec T1/2) 16N b- + 16O
18O(n,g)19O (Radioactive, 26.9 sec T1/2) 19O b- + 19F
19F(n,g)20F (Radioactive, 11.0 sec T1/2) 20F b- + 20Ne
22Ne(n,g)23Ne (Radioactive, 37.2 sec T1/2) 23Ne b- + 23Na
23Na(n,g)24Na (Radioactive, 15.0 hr T1/2) 24Na b- + 24Mg
26Mg(n,g)27Mg (Radioactive, 9.4 min T1/2) 27Mg b- + 27Al
27Al(n,g)28Al (Radioactive, 2.3 min T1/2) 28Al b- + 28Si
30Si(n,g)31Si (Radioactive, 2.6 hr T1/2) 31Si b- + 31P
32P(n,g)33P (Radioactive, 14.3 d T1/2) 33P b- + 33S
34S(n,g)35S (Radioactive, 87.2 d T1/2) 35S b- + 35Cl
35Cl(n,g)36Cl (Radioactive, 3.01 x 105yr T1/2) 36Cl b- + 36Ar
36Ar(n,g)37Ar (Radioactive, 35.0 d T1/2) 37Ar + e-37Cl
37Cl(n,g)38Cl (Radioactive, 37.2 min T1/2) 38Cl b- + 38Ar
38Ar(n,g)39Ar (Radioactive, 369 yr T1/2) 39Ar b- + 39K
39K(n,g)40K (Radioactive, 1.28 x 109yr T1/2) 40K b- + 40Ca
40Ca(n,g)41Ca (Radioactive, 1.03 x 105yr T1/2) 41Ca + e-41K
41K(n,g)42K (Radioactive, 12.4 hr T1/2) 42K b- + 42Ca
44Ca(n,g)45Ca (Radioactive, 162.7 d T1/2) 45Ca b- + 45Sc
45Sc(n,g)46Sc (Radioactive, 83.8 d T1/2) 46Sc b- + 46Ti
50Ti(n,g)51Ti (Radioactive, 5.76 min T1/2) 51Ti b- + 51V
51V(n,g)52V (Radioactive, 3.76 min T1/2) 52V b- + 52Cr
Because of gaps in Nuclear Stability, and the binding energy per
Nucleon, it is impossible to make elements above Iron by simple
Neutron capture and Beta decay! The only way to produce
elements heavier than Iron is by neutron capture on a fast time
scale before any of the short lived intermediaries can decay. This
must occur during a super Novae explosion, where many neutrons
can be captured in a very short time scale (~ 10-6sec). Since
elements above Iron are very common on earth, we must have
been cycled through at least one super Novae explosion.
Followed by subsequent beta decay until we reach Nuclear
87Fe b- + 87Co 8b- + 79Br
Since there are no Stable elements above the mass of Bismuth,
we must have neutron capture on a fast time scale to make
elements such as Uranium, which do exist on earth!
209Bi + 29 1n 9b- + 238U
The existence of heavy elements on earth with long half-lives
shows that every thing on Earth was at least once cycled
through a supernovae explosion.
On some of the previous slides, I was using Scientific notation,
and it needs to be explained! In Scientific notation, a number that
is very large, or very small can be indicated in an abbreviated form.
A number is given as a number between 1 & 10 followed by a
factor of 10 multiplier. N x 10n Examples:
100 = 1 x 102 one hundred
1,000 = 1 x 103 one thousand
1,000,000 = 1 x 106 one million
1,000,000,000 = 1 x 109 one billion
1,000,000,000,000 = 1 x 1012 one trillion
0.001 = 1 x 10-3 one thousandth
0.0000001 = 1 x 10-6 one millionth
0.0000000001 = 1 x 10-9 one billionth
0.0000000000001 = 1 x 10-12 one trillionth
40K 40Ar + b-
T1/2 = 1.29 x 109yrs
87Rb 87Sr + b-
T1/2 = 4.8 x 1010yrs
232 Th 208 Pb
T1/2 = 1.4 x 1010yrs
235U 207 Pb
T1/2 = 7 x 108yrs
238U 206 Pb
T1/2 = 4.5 x 109yrs
The Parent radioisotope decays to the daughter in the time
indicated as the half-life. In all changes of this type, ½ of the atoms
decays to the daughter in the time indicated. By measuring the
quantity of the parent isotope present and the quantity of the
daughter present one can calculate the quantity of time that has
elapsed since the material being tested has been isolated from
In the case of the Long lived Uranium and Thorium decay series,
there are elements in the decay series that are Noble gases, and
being a gas could be lost, but if they are lost, the apparent decay
time would be shorter, not longer!
Models of Element production by the “S” and “R” processes are
used to know how much was initially formed in the Primordial
The most common dating method is 14C which has a Half-life of 5730 years decays by
Beta emission (a high energy electron), in which a neutron changes into a proton to
produce the product 14N.
Professor Willard Libby developed the 14C dating method, and received the Nobel prize
for developing the technique in 1960. This method has been used for many years,
and as long as representative samples are used, the method delivers excellent data, on
samples with ages up to approximately 50,000 years.
To measure the very long times needed in the ages of the Earth and Universe, we use
the very long lived naturally occurring isotopes such as:
235U, T1/2 = 7.04 x 108 yrs (704,000,000 yrs); Eventually forming 207Pb
238U, T1/2 = 4.47 x 109 yrs (4,470,000,000 yrs); “ “ 206Pb
232Th, T1/2 = 1.40 x 1010 yrs (14,000,000,000 yrs). “ “ 208Pb
One Stable Isotope of Lead is 204Pb which is have not found in any radioactive decay
series of a naturally occurring Isotope; indicating that it was formed in the original
“big bang” event, and represents premordial formation.
Each of these decays to a different lead isotope which can be measured, giving a dating
method that can be used to date the ages of not only the Earth, but almost any physical
object that contains matter.
234U 230 Th 226Ra 222Rn 218Po 214Pb
218At 214Bi 210 Tl
214Po 210Pb 206Hg
= decay 210Bi 206Tl
= decay 210 Po206Pb
238U -- 8decays and 6 decays leaves you with -- 206Pb
Relaxation times of star clusters > 4 Billion Years
Erosion on Mercury, Mars, and the Moon > 4 Billion Years
Star stream interactions in galaxies > 8 Billion Years
Expansion of the Universe 15.5 + 4.0 Billion Years
Color-Luminosity fitting of Stars 18.0 + 2.4 “ “
Nucleochronology (Radioisotopes) 17.0 + 4.0 “ “
Deuterium abundance and mass density 19.0 + 5.0 “ “
Anthropic Principles 17.0 + 7.0 “ “
Mean age = 17 + 3 Billion Years
3) Fact: The universe, our galaxy, and our solar system exhibit
more than sixty characteristics that require exquisite
fine-tuning for their very existence, and also for the
existence of life (any kind of physical life, not just life as
we know it).
Theological significance: The Entity (Creator) who brought the
universe into existence must be personal, intelligent,
powerful, and caring, for only a super-intelligent,
super-powerful Person could design and manufacture
what we see, including life; caring, for only care could
explain the enormous investment of creative effort, the
attention to intricate detail, and the comprehensive
provision for needs.
Observations by the COBE satellite of tiny ripples in the radiation
left over from the “Big Bang”. Evidence for the birth of the universe!
The Nucleochronology dating methods use the half-lives of long lived
radioisotopes and their daughters to measure the long time periods involved in the ages of the Earth, Moon, and Universe.
Age of the Universe 17+ 3 Billion Years
Age of the Earth 4.57 Billion Years
Age of the moon 4.25 Billion Years
Based upon Earth’s position relative to the sun, it should have an atmosphere 40 times
as dense as it has! What happened to the atmosphere? The answer is our over sized
moon! Something happened about 4.25 billion years ago.
The moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of several cm per year! This implies that
the moon was in contact with the Earth approximately 4.25 billion years ago.
The moon is younger than the earth. Radioisotopic dating methods show that the Earth is
4.57 billion years old, and from Apollo samples brought back from the moon, it is only
4.25 billion years old.
The size of the moon also puts a drag on the earth’s rotational velocity, and the Earth’s
rotation is definitely slowing down.
The moon also has a slightly, but significantly different chemical and Isotopic composition
than does the Earth, proving that they did not form from the same dust cloud orbiting
around the sun.
It is postulated that an impactor approximately the size of Mars (nine times the mass of
the moon, and one-ninth the mass of Earth), hit the earth and blew the atmosphere
(containing methane and ammonia) into space, but retaining the water, which is heavier.
Challenge 1: Astronomers are wrong about the distance to stars and galaxies.
Reply: The implication is that astronomers determine the distances of cosmic objects by
only one method: the red-shifts of spectral lines. And because red-shift measurements of
distances may possibly be off by a large percentage, the distances reported by
astronomers are considered unreliable. This, however, is not true. Astronomers use a
wide variety of distance measuring tools. While disagreement does exist over which are
the most reliable, the uncertainties hover around 10 to 15 percent.
Challenge 2: God could have created the light waves already in transit.
Reply: This argument obviously belongs to the appearance-of-age category. The
overlooked fact here is that star light and galaxy light give direct indications of their travel
distances. The spectral lines (light waves at various frequencies) of stars and galaxies
are broadened in direct proportion to the distance they travel. The random motions of
gas clouds in space cause this effect. The radiation between spectral lines, called the
continuum, grows redder as it travels through interstellar and intergalactic dust. This
reddening, like the effect of forest fire smoke on our view of the sun, is directly
proportional to the distance the light has traveled. Both theory and observations confirm
that the broadening and reddening effects are reliable indicators of light-travel time and
distance, even up to billions of light years.
Challenge 3: Light may have traveled faster a few thousand years ago.
Reply: The work of two Australian creationists has been widely publicized among
proponents of a young universe. Barry Setterfield and Trevor Norman teamed up to
propose that the reason the universe appears old is that light used to travel much faster
than it does today. Given decay in light’s velocity, the present value of the velocity of light
would yield an inaccurate measure of the size and age for the universe.
The basis for this claim is a misinterpretation of data from speed-of-light
measurements made over many years. What the data actually show is the increasing
refinement of measurements, not a change in velocity. The first calculation of the speed
of light was attempted in 1675 by Olaus Romer, a Danish astronomer. His figure was
about 3% higher than the modern measurements show. But the uncertainty in his
measurements exceeded 3%. If Romer had had more precise data for one part of his
calculation, his speed-of-light figure would have agreed with modern measurements to
within 0.5%. Apparently the article describing this research was misunderstood by the
Australians, and they took the 1675 speed figure as evidence for the speed-of-light
decreasing by 0.5%.
Challenge 4: Light may take a shortcut through space.
Reply: This argument arises from the work of young-universe creationist
Harold Slusher, who picks up the idea proposed in 1953 by Parry Moon and Domina
Spencer who were trying to overthrow Einstein’s theory of relativity. Their theory was
that light could travel in a different type of space, a highly curved type of space, and
therefore travel faster than its fixed speed. They backed up their theory with no
mathematics, or facts, and Slusher did not know how well proven Einstein’s theory of
relativity is accepted and understood by scientists.
Universe? - I
Sample Evidence A: The continents are eroding too quickly
Erosion measurements show that the continents are lowered by wind, rain, etc., at a rate
of about 0.05 millimeters per year. At this rate, the continents (averaging about
800 meters in elevation) would disappear in about 16 million years. Since continents do
still have considerable elevation, the earth must be younger than 16 million years.
Reply: The fallacy lies in its failure to acknowledge that lava flows, delta and continental
shelf buildup (from eroded material), coral reef buildup, and uplift from colliding tectonic
plates occur at rates roughly equivalent to, and in many cases far exceeding, the erosion
rate. The Himalayas, for example, as a result of tectonic uplift, are rising at a rate of
about 15 millimeters per year. The San Gabriel Mountains, just north of Los Angeles, are
rising at an average rate of 9 millimeters per year. Lava flows have increased the land
area of the state of Hawaii by several square miles since its admission into the United
States in 1959. The amount of land mass added each year as a result of volcanoes and
tectonics is roughly independent of the total continental land area. Therefore continental
land area continues to increase until there is enough land area that the rate of erosion
equals the rate of build up. The time required for the continents to build up from 0% of
the global surface area to the present 30% (and equilibrium) takes about 2 billion years.
Thus continental erosion is an argument for an old rather than a young earth.
Universe? - II
Sample Evidence B: Dust accumulates too quickly on the moon’s surface.
In the 1950’s measurements at Mauna Loa Volcano in Hawaii by a geophysicist found
nickel on air filters, and he assumed that since it is rare in crustal material it must all be
from meteorites. Using the data that meteorites are about 2.5% nickel, they calculated
that some 14 million tons of space dust settles on the earth every year. Applied to a
4 billion year old moon, this would be 145 feet. Since we know that there is only about
2.5 inches on the moon, this has been used to give an age for the moon of only about
10,000 years by the young-universe creationists.
Reply: I have done 10 years of aerosol measurements at Mauna Loa myself, and the
Nickel found on atmospheric aerosols is predominately of Crustal origin, not
extraterrestrial. In fact the quantity of extraterrestrial material can be measured by an
excess of Iridium and it is much less, amounting for only about 20 thousand tons of
extraterrestrial dust falling on the earth per year. This number is in good agreement with
that obtained from satellites, 23 thousand tons per year. If we use the best data available
on the cosmic dust in fall rate we obtain an age of the moon of 4.25 billion years, in
agreement with the radiogenic dates for the moon, not the young earth date of
Universe? - III
Sample Evidence C: The earth’s magnetic field is decaying too rapidly.
The earth’s magnetic field has decreased steadily since measurements were first taken
some 150 years ago. Based on the field strength of a typical magnetic star (certainly
exceeding any conceivable value for Earth) and on the observed rate of decay, some
creationists have calculated that the decay process must have begun on Earth on more
than 10,000 years ago. Thus the earth’s age must be 10,000 years or less.
Reply: The problem with this evidence is that Earth’s magnetic field does not undergo
steady decay but rather follows a “sinusoidal” pattern. That is, the field strength decays,
builds up, decays, builds up, etc. The proof for this pattern lies in ancient geological
strata found throughout the world. The rocks reveal that the earth’s magnetic field
reverses its polarity roughly every half million years. Each reversal lasts roughly 10,000
years. The earth’s magnetic field originates in the core of the earth where the Iron-Nickel
material that makes up the core is semi molten, and undergoes circulation patterns as
heat from decaying radioisotopes is conducted away from the core. The Iron atoms,
being magnetic align themselves with the earth’s magnetic field, and volcanic lava rocks
formed during volcanic eruptions show the direction and strength of the earth’s magnetic
field as it was when these rocks were cooled from the liquid magma.
Universe? - IV
Sample Evidence D: The sun burns by gravitational contraction and thus must
Before the discovery of nuclear energy, the only explanation astronomers could offer for
the enormous energy output of the sun and other stars was gravitational contraction.
Given the diameter and energy output of our sun, we can calculate that its maximum age
would be about 100 million years if it were generating energy only by this process. When
some measurements indicated a very slight decrease in the sun’s diameter, a number of
young-earth creationists concluded that the sun’s energy output must arise only from the
gravitational collapse of the sun, rather than from nuclear fusion processes at its core.
Therefore, they surmised that the sun’s age must be less than 100 million years.
Reply: Again, the argument overlooks significant data. First, it has been shown that if a
body of our sun’s diameter were experiencing gravitational contraction, the temperature,
pressure, and other conditions at its center would inevitably ignite nuclear fusion.
Furthermore, various measured characteristics of the sun - including its effective
temperature, luminosity, spectra, radius, outflow of neutrinos, and mass - all guarantee
that the sun is burning by nuclear fusion and that this fusion has been proceeding for
about 5 billion years. As for the observed decrease in the sun’s diameter, the
measurements cited were later found to be at odds with other visual measurements.
Universe? - V
Sample Evidence E: Galaxy clusters are not dispersed widely.
For a cluster of heavenly bodies to remain together (contained), the gravity of the system
must be sufficient to overcome the velocities of the individual bodies within it. Armed with
measurements of the velocities and masses for all the galaxies in a galaxy cluster,
astronomers can calculate: (a) the dispersal time (time it takes for all the galaxies to
leave the cluster) for clusters with total mass too small for gravitational containment; or
(b) the relaxation time (time required for galaxies to assume randomized velocities) for
clusters with total mass large enough for containment. Some creationists point out that
when such calculations are applied to galaxy clusters, the lack of observed galaxy
dispersal indicates an age for the clusters much less than a billion years.
Reply: The problem with this argument is that these calculations for dispersal and
relaxation times assume not only that all the mass within the galaxy clusters is luminous
but also that galaxies approximate point sources (those with diameters very much
smaller than the average distances between them). On the contrary, sound evidence
exists to conclude that most of the mass is non-luminous (that is, not shining by its own
light production). And galaxies cannot be treated as point sources. In fact, their diameters
are only about an order of magnitude smaller (that is, about ten times smaller) than the
average distances between them within a given cluster.
Universe? - VI
By comparison, however, essentially all of the mass within the star clusters is visible,
and the stars within the clusters are point sources. The average distances between
them are at least seven orders of magnitude greater (that is, about 10 million times
greater) than their average diameters. When dispersal and relaxation time
calculations are applied to star clusters in our galaxy, many clusters show their ages
to be greater than 2 billion years.
Universe? - VII
Sample Evidence F: Granite crystal halos can arise from 218Po decay only if the
earth is young.
Polonium 218 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of only three minutes. Yet halos in
granite crystals that appear to arise from the decay of polonium 218 show up in what
seems to be basement or primordial rock deposits. If the halos arise from primordial
polonium, then how did the surrounding rocks crystallize so rapidly that the crystals were
ready to receive halo impressions from the decay of polonium? The answer according to
young-earth creationist Robert Gentry, among others, is that geologists are wrong about
their understanding of the processes shaping the earth shortly after its formation.
Instead, they say, God must have imposed the geological structures instantaneously.
Therefore, measurements by geologists do not prove that the earth is old, nor can they
be used to argue against a young earth.
Reply: There is no evidence proof of halos in basement or primordial rocks, and likewise
no evidence that halos arise only from the decay of polonium 218. Geologist Jeffrey
Wakefield actually visited all of Gentry’s sample sites, in every case Gentry’s samples
came not from primordial granites as he had claimed, but rather from young dikes
(igneous rock infusions into vertical fissures) that crosscut older igneous and
sedimentary rocks. The decay of Uranium or Thorium all have 7 or 8 alpha emitters!
Since any alpha emitter can make halos, these other isotopes could be responsible.
Universe? - VIII
Sample Evidence G: Rapid sedimentation and peat deposition following the 1980
Mount Saint Helens eruption demonstrated that all geological processes are not
gradual, but rapid.
Within a relatively brief period of time (a few months to a few years) following the violent
eruption of Mt. St. Helens, peat layers (the first stage in the formation of Coal) and
sedimentary rock already had formed in the vicinity of the volcano. This phenomenon
seemed to young-earth creationists to challenge the notion that geologic layers are
deposited according to gradual uniformitarian processes taking place over millions and
hundreds of millions of years. They concluded that geological processes provide
evidences for a young earth and not for an old earth.
Reply: The problem lies in the assumption that all geological processes either take place
gradually at relatively uniform (i.e., constant) rates or rapidly at rates pulsed by major
catastrophes. The young-earth versus old-earth debate is pictured in this context as a
battle between the principles of uniformitarianism and the principles of catastrophism,
with one significant twist. Catastrophism as defined by geologists refers to the formation
of geologic structures through a variety of catastrophes occurring at different times.
Young-earth creationists define catastrophism as the formation of all Earth’s major
geologic structures by a single catastrophic event, namely the Genesis flood, occurring
Universe? - IX
during a ten-and-a-half-month period five to fifteen thousand years ago. The use of the
Mount Saint Helens exemplifies the “either-or” fallacy (that is, it sets up an unfounded
dilemma). Geology reflects the operation of both slow and rapid processes. Some
geological features can only be explained by gradual processes over millions of years,
such as: coral atolls, anthracite coal and certain conglomerate and metamorphic layers.
In the case of coral atolls, scientists can measure the daily accumulation of band-like
deposits over millions of years. From these deposits they can make many
determinations, including the rate of slowing of the earth’s rotation period. Such deposits
establish that the earth’s rotation period has been slowing down at exactly the same rate
over the last 400 million years.
Universe? - X
Sample Evidence H: Since computer models of the spiral structure of galaxies
show that the spiral collapses after two or three rotations, spiral galaxies must
be much younger than astronomers claim.
Isaac Newton’s laws of motion enable us to calculate with considerable precision the
dynamics of large rotating systems of stars. When Kevin Prendergast made such
calculations twenty-five years ago, he discovered that a large system of stars will
establish a spiral structure only in a few rotations and that after two or three more
rotations the structure will collapse into a sphere or an ellipsoid. Since we know that
galaxies take only a few hundred million years to rotate, the existence of a significant
number of spiral galaxies in the universe today, according to certain young-universe
creationists, proves they cannot be as old as the 9 to 15 billion years that astronomers
claim. Instead, they must be less than 2 billion years old. If they are less than 2 billion
years old, then astronomers cannot be trusted in their age calculations, and perhaps
the universe is only thousands of years old.
Reply: The argument based upon evidence H overlooks the continuing research by
Prendergast and others. In the years following his initial computer modeling efforts,
Prendergast discovered that ongoing star formation stabilizes the spiral structure.
Specifically, he demonstrated that as long as new stars continue to form at a significant
Universe? - XI
rate within a galaxy, the spiral structure will be maintained. But as soon as star
formation ceases, the spiral structure will collapse within the next two or three rotations.
Prendergast’s discovery beautifully dovetails with astronomers’ observations of
galaxies. In spherical and ellipsoidal galaxies, astronomers see no evidence of ongoing
star formation, whereas in the spiral galaxies such evidence is abundant. And, the
farther away astronomers look (that is, the farther back in time they see), the more spiral
galaxies they observe. Since spiral galaxies still exist, the universe cannot be any older
than about 25 billion years. Because only 6% of the galaxies near our own are spirals,
the universe cannot be any younger than about 12 billion years.
Universe? - XII
Sample Evidence I: Trails of “human” footprints alongside, and sometimes
crossing over, trails of dinosaur prints prove that dinosaurs were contemporary
The observation of a few footprints that appear to be human prints alongside a great
many prints that were clearly made by dinosaurs has been interpreted by many
young-earth creationists as proof that dinosaurs and men lived together. This fact would
imply that the geological strata in which the prints were found could not have been
deposited tens of millions of years ago but only in the last few thousand years. Therefore
the dinosaurs and the strata of the earth are not relics from the past but have existed only
for about ten thousand years.
Reply: The first assumption that must be addressed is that prints in close proximity
necessarily establish contemporaneous existence. This fact is false. The earth’s strata
can be disturbed and redisturbed by events occurring at different times, especially in a
river bed like that at Glen Rose, Texas, where most of the “human” footprints have been
found. But this faulty assumption is not the main defect of the argument from evidence I.
The more serious problem lies in the identification of the prints as human. There are
reasons to believe that these “human” prints were made by dinosaurs, their size, shape,
features, etc. All indicate that these tracks were made by small dinosaurs, not “humans”.
Universe? - XIII
Sample Evidence J: Since a comet’s average lifespan is only a couple of
thousand years, given the rather limited supply of comets, their present existence
proves the solar system cannot be any older than a few thousand years.
Comets orbiting the solar system, such as Halley’s comet, are reported to disintegrate in
about two thousand years on the average. Every time a comet swings close by the sun,
the heat and light of the sun boil away a significant portion of the comet’s mass. After a
few dozen revolutions, none of the comet remains. Since comets are observed orbiting
the sun, the solar system must be only a few thousand years old.
Reply: Estimates cited in evidence J for the average lifespan of a comets date back to
the 1970s. At that time no space-based measurements of comets were available, and
what data did exist was weighted heavily by easy-to-see comets. The easiest comets to
see are those that pass closest to the sun, and these comets suffer the most rapid
disintegration. Hence, estimates previous to 1980 of the average lifespans for comets
have since proven to be far too low. In 1986 five space craft visited Halley’s comet and
made the first accurate measurements of both its mass and its rate of disintegration.
Astronomers determined that Halley’s comet is massive enough to survive at least
another 500 revolutions around the sun. With observations of Halley’s comet going back
to 240 BC, and knowing that it passes the sun every seventy-six years, we can calculate
Universe? - IVX
the approximate minimum lifespan for this comet at 40,000+ years. Halley’s comet is
unusual in that it has such a short period of revolution. Much more typical are comets
such as Kohoutek, which comes around the sun every 80,000 years, or Pons-Brooks and
Griggs-Mellish, every 3,000,000 years. Five hundred revolutions for these comets would
yield lifespans of 40 million and 1.5 billion years respectively.
Evidence for the Fine Tuning of the Universe
if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small; certain
life-essential elements would be unstable; certain life-essential
chemical reactions would not function properly
if larger: certain life-essential elements would be unstable; certain
life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly
By the word of the Lord the heavens were made,
and by the breath of his mouth all their host.
It is He who made the earth by His power,
Who established the world by His power;
And by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens.
“ Surely My hand founded the earth,
And My right hand spread out the heavens;
When I call to them, they stand together”
For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens
(He is the God who formed the earth and made it,
He established it and did not create it a waste place,
but formed it to be inhabited),
“I am the Lord, and there is none else.”
“Thus says the Lord, ‘If My covenant for day and night stand
not, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have not
It is He who sits above the vault of the earth,
And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers,
Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain
And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in.
Is 40:26 - 28
Lift up your eyes on high
And see who has created these stars,
The one who leads forth their host by number,
He calls them all by name;
Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of
Not one of them is missing.
Why do you say, O Jacob, and assert, O Israel,
“My way is hidden from the Lord,
And the justice due me escapes the notice of my God”
Do you not know? Have you not heard?
The Everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the
Does not become weary or tired.
His understanding is inscrutable.
Protons are the building blocks of matter, and are very long lived!
Neutrons are the combination of a proton and an electron, the
Light negatively charged particle that is around the atom. The
following are Nuclear reactions for the decay of a proton, and
Neutrons in atoms with an excess of either particle.
N P+ + b- + Energy Beta decay
P+ + e- N + Energy Electron capture
P+ N + b+ + Energy Positron decay
A positron is an example of “Exotic” matter, or anti-matter, and
it is in a positive matter Universe!
Important Tool in Imaging Research
In the technique of positron Tomography, a positron emitting isotope
Is included into a molecule that is incorporated into a chemical reaction.
The positron emitted during the decay of the isotope will analite with an
Electron and emit two 511 kev gamma rays that can then be detected,
and the location of the decaying isotope isolated accurately.
b+ + e- Energy Two Gamma rays at 180o
The two gamma
rays come away
Common Positron emitting Isotopes: 15O, T1/2 = 122s ; 18F, T1/2 = 1.83 hr
11C, T1/2= 20.3 min , 13N, T1/2 = 9.97 min , ETC
15O 15N + b+ + Energy
18F 18O + b+ + Energy
11C 11B + b+ + Energy
13N 13C + b+ + Energy
These radioisotopes can be incorporated into glucose molecules
and injected into the blood stream leading to the brain, where the
glucose will be metabolized in the cells. The position of the
glucose tells us where the glucose molecules was! In this way,
We can obtain images of the Human Brain while it is functioning.
Glucose = C6H12O6
The Tomograph is an
instrument that is a ring
of gamma ray detectors
that react very fast to
gamma rays, and by
measuring the time each
detector receives the signal
one can locate the point of
origin of the gamma ray to a precision of + 1 cm in a
human being or any other physical object, with out
any in vivo investigation. The detectors must have a
capability of measuring up to + 250 ps per pulse.
Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Galaxy-Sun-Earth-Moon
System for Life Support (4)
Flood Basalts (Myr) Extinctions (Myr)
Columbia River 16+1 Lower/Middle Miocene 14+3
Ethiopian 36.9+0.9 Late Eocene* 36+1
North Atlantic 59.5+1 Paleocene/Eocene*? 57.8+1
Deccan 65.5+2.5 Cretaceous/Tert.* 65+1
Madagascar 86.6+2 Cenomanian/Turon.*? 92+1
Rajmahal 117+1 Aptian/Albian 113+4
Serra Geral 133+1 Jurassic/Cretaceous*? 137+7
Antarctic 176+1 Bajocian/Bathonian*? 173+3
Karoo 190+2 Pliensbachian 193+3
Newark 201+1 Triassic/Jurassic* 203+2
Wrangellia ~225 Ladinian/Carnian ~225
Siberian 248+4 Permian/Triassic*? 251+4
* Impact evidence *? Possible impact evidence
Atmosphere at Mauna Loa Observatory,
Year CO2 Conc. Year CO2 Conc. Year CO2 Conc.
1971 324.62 1983 342.89 1995 360.62
1972 325.43 1984 343.99 1996 362.36
1973 326.49 1985 345.53 1997 363.47
1974 329.30 1986 346.73 1998 366.49
1975 330.85 1987 349.08 1999 368.13
1976 331.78 1988 351.43 2000 369.13
1977 333.68 1989 352.89 2001 371.08
1978 335.28 1990 354.12 2002 373.16
1979 336.38 1991 355.45 2003 375.79
1980 338.05 1992 356.20 2004
1981 339.69 1993 356.92 2005
1982 341.20 1994 358.64 2006
The absorption spectra for Ozone and Molecular
Oxygen. The region that is absorbed by molecular
Oxygen and Ozone are referred to as the UVA (100-240 nm)
and the UVB (240-360 nm) region of the electromagnetic
Spectrum and are referred to as ionizing radiation.
Plot of wavelength verses intensity
of in coming solar radiation.
UVA and UVB are known as ionizing
radiation and will destroy molecules!
leading to Ozone Depletion - I
Normal Ozone production in the stratosphere and its absorption
of Ultra violet. Ozone is made when Ultra Violet Light (UVA) is
absorbed by molecular oxygen to create two oxygen atoms. If
these oxygen atoms collide with molecular oxygen they react to
form Ozone. The Ozone formed will absorb Ultra Violet light in the
UVB wavelengths, thus absorbing most of the short wavelength
UV light, which is also called ionizing radiation, and will destroy
O2 2 O l = hn = 170-190 nm (UVA)
O + O2 O3
O3 O2 + O l = hn = 200-300 nm (UVB)
leading to Ozone Depletion - II
In 1971 Dr. Harold Johnson A professor at the University of
California at Berkeley, calculated that the Nitrogen oxides
produced by the Jet engines of the then proposed Super Sonic
Transports (SST’s) would destroy much of the Ozone layer that
protects us on the Earth’s surface from Ultra Violet light
(both UVA ad UVB). The reactions he proposed are:
N2 + O2 2 NO =This symbol indicated heat energy
NO + O3 NO2 + O2This reaction is very fast!
Adding these last two reactions
NO2 + O NO + O2together and canceling out similar
reactants gives the catalytic reaction!
O3 + O 2 O2This reaction shows Ozone destruction!
The results of this research stopped the US from making an SST!
Freon-11 CF2Cl2 : Freon-12 CFCl3
Stratospheric Reaction Chemistry:
CF2Cl2 CF2Cl + Cl
Cl + O3 O2 + ClO
ClO + O O2 + Cl
O3 + O 2 O2
Catalytic Ozone destruction
Ozone and ClO
Volcanoes Usually produce large quantities of Sulfur Dioxide.
This SO2 reacts to form acids which cause acid rain, which can
cause rocks to weather (break down), these acids also have
deleterious effects on vegetation.
SO2(g) + H2O(L) H2SO3(aq) Sulfurous acid (A weak acid)
2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)
SO3(g) + H2O(L) H2SO4(aq) Sulfuric acid (A strong acid)
Volcanoes also produce ash, along with the sulfuric acid, will form
aerosols (particles) in the atmosphere that will reflect sunlight back
into space, cooling the atmosphere.
The chemistry of volcanoes is such that many volcanoes also
release Hydrochloric acid (HCl) or Hydrofluoric acid (HF) in large
concentrations. For example the Hawaiian Volcanoes such as
Kilauea, can release tons of HCl per hour during major eruptions.
These acids have a huge impact on the dissolution of rocks and
the releasing of many metals essential for life into the environment.
Hot spot volcanic activity is a unique type that has had a great
Impact on life forms on Earth, and has been going on for millions
of years. Chains of Islands such as the Hawaiian Islands are
formed by Hot spot volcanism. These volcanoes also produce a
unique chemical signature, as they contain elements found in the
core of the earth such as Iridium, Platinum, Osmium and Rhenium,
Very rare on the surface of the earth.
Plot of wavelength verses intensity
of in coming solar radiation.
UVA and UVB are known as ionizing
radiation and will destroy molecules!
According to Genesis 5, life spans from Adam to Noah
averaged 912 years. The population table is based upon the
Life span = 900 years,
first child comes at age forty,
childbearing years = 600 yrs,
one child every four years during
child bearing years.
Archeological evidence from the pre-flood era provides no
indication that the pre-flood population ever became this large.
Infant mortality and disease could be the reasons that the
population stayed small.
Adam’s Reproducing Children Total
Age Couples Born Population
0 1 0 2
40 1 10 12
80 6 30 42
120 21 100 142
160 71 352 494
200 247 1,210 1,704
240 852 4,180 5,884
280 2,942 14,450 20,334
320 10,167 49,892 70,226
360 35,113 172,358 242,584
400 121,292 595,378 837,962
440 418,980 2,056,530 2,894,492
480 1,447,245 7,103,862 9,998,364
520 4,999,176 24,538,536 34,536,930
560 17,268,444 84,762,338 119,299,368
600 59,649,613 292,790,780 412,090,500
640 206,045,003 1,011,374,120 1,423,465,830
680 711,732,063 3,493,544,650 4,917,014,660
720 2,459,504,388 12,067,585,000 16,984,600,000
760 8,492,300,000 41,685,303,000 58,669,903,000
If the Flood covered the entire earth to a depth of the highest
mountains, Mt. Everest (5.5 miles), the volume of water would be
approximately 1.1 x 109 mi3 this is about 3 times the volume of the
world’s oceans. Or approximately 730 ft of rain water per day
(6.0 inches of rain per minute) would have had to fall for the
40 days and 40 nights as indicated in Genesis 7! The places
Named in Genesis 1-9 are only around Mesopotamia so could it
have been a regional flood?
The failure of Man kind to spread though out the entire world
as God directed man Kind to do in Genesis 1:28 “ Be fruitful and
Multiply, and fill the earth” brought certain changes. In Genesis 9:7
God repeats the command to multiply and fill the earth. In
Genesis 1-9 the text mentions place-names only in Mesopotamia.
Beginning in Genesis 10, we encounter names beyond
Mesopotamia, indicating that Man kind was finally beginning to
spread out over the earth.
5) Mountain ranges and ocean basins cannot erode in forty days
nor build up in eleven months, as would be required by one
explanation of a global Flood, without leaving evidence easily
6) Not even an ark of steel armor plate could survive the rigors of
a Flood gone global in forty days nor of the devastating effects
of tens of thousands of feet of erosion in forty days and similar
uplift within a year’s time.
7) The creatures earmarked for rescue included only Noah,
Noah’s family, and birds and mammals that had significant
contact with humanity.
8) Genesis 7 does not claim that water stood above the highest
mountains; rather, it says that an enormous deluge fell upon
or ran over or covered the highest hills visible to Noah.
9) Genesis 8:4 records that the ark landed in the mountains
(or hills) of Ararat, not specifically on top of Mount Ararat
itself. The designated area encompasses more than one
hundred thousand square miles.
10) Olive leaves do not grow at high altitudes, nor could they
survive a global Flood.
11) The water of a global Flood could not recede in less than a
12) A strong wind (Genesis 8:1) would be useful for dissipating a
regional but not a global Flood.
13) Earth cannot possibly support at one time the half-billion or
more species of life the fossil record documents, which would
be required according to the global flood theory.
14) A recent global Flood cannot account for Earth’s enormous
deposits of kerogen, topsoil, limestone, marble, and fossil fuels.
15) Petroleum products were available before the Flood for Noah’s
use in sealing the ark (Genesis 6:14).
16) The million-plus animal species on Earth today could not have
evolved in just a few thousand years from the thirty thousand
species-maximum- the ark could have carried.
17) No viable scientific evidence has ever been found for a recent,
For many years there has been a growing split between
“Science, and Scientists” and the “Church”, which for many years
was the catholic church. It probably started with the Greek
Philosopher Aristotle, who believed that every thing revolved
around the earth. During this early time, science was the “Church”,
and all scientists were part of the “Church”, and supported by the
When the astronomer Copernicus brought forth the idea that the
earth revolved around the sun, and the earth was not the center
of the Universe, there was a break between the Church and
Modern science. I believe the split has it’s roots in this time period.
With the advent of “Modern” science, we now have the “Big
Bang”, or beginning of everything, and the expanding Universe.
Beginning in 1966, George Ellis, Stephen Hawkings, and Rodger
Penrose affirmed that any expanding universe governed by general
relativity and which also contains at least some matter and energy
must possess a singular origin in the finite past.
Magnesium metal burning in Air!
2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) + Energy
Magnesium metal Burning with Carbon dioxide!
Mg(s) + CO2(g) MgO(s) + CO(g) + Energy
Magnesium Metal Burning with Dry Ice! (Solid Carbon Dioxide)
3 Mg(s) + CO2(s) 2 MgO(s) + MgC(s) + Energy
According to the fossil record, at least a half-billion to a
Billion new species of life arose between the Cambrian
Explosion (about 543 million years ago) and the arrival of
human beings (about 30,000 to 50,000 years ago). This
averages about one or two or more new species per year.
Since the coming of humans, however, the rate of new
species discovery has dropped to virtual zero! According to
Biologists Paul and Ann Ehrlich, “The production of a new
animal species in nature has yet to be documented.” In other
words, God rested form his creating on the seventh day,
which we are still in!
The extinction rate has remained constant at about one
species per year during normal conditions, and more during
years of environmental stress.
Ice Structure with open holes giving
Ice a density less than water it’s self.
The delicate 6 point snow flake
reflects the hexagonal structure.
During the 1970’s there was a very intense effort in the Chemical
Sciences to show that life could be formed spontaneously from
Chemicals assumed to be present on the primitive earth.
Ammonia, methane, and water vapor were placed into containers
along with different other things and sparked to simulate lighting,
and then look for primitive amino acids the building blocks of life.
NH3 + CH4 + H2O + Energy Amino acids
[ H2NCH2COOH, Glycine]
Only simple amino acids were formed, and a few simple
combinations of amino acids were formed after many years and
hundreds of millions of research funds had been expended!
What are the odds of making just one strand of DNA out of
Random nucleotide combinations? This demonstration was made
by Michael Heart in 1982 to show how improbable life formation
was, even given the building blocks necessary to form DNA.
400 positions where any one of four nucleotide residues will do,
and at each of 100 other positions where either of two
nucleotide residues would be effective, leaving only 100
positions where the exactly correct nucleotide residue must be
present. (This is a very optimistic set of circumstances!)
For this to occur, the odds are 1:1090, in 10 billion years, the
chance of forming such a strand spontaneously would be 10-90
times 1060, or 10-30 for each of 100 different specific genes to be
formed spontaneously (in 10 billion years) the probability is
(10-30)100 = 10-3000 for them to be in close proximity it is worse!!
The complexity of DNA and Biological molecules precludes that
they could have been put together by chance!
DNA and genes are so compact that all of the DNA and genes in
a person’s body would fit into a cube the size of an ice cube!
If all of the DNA in a person’s body were unraveled, and joined
end to end, the strand would reach from the earth to the
Sun and back more than 400 times!
The DNA in a single cell is estimated to contain instructions, that
if written out would fill a thousand 600 page books.
Another book stated that all of the information stored in all of the
books of the library of Congress could be stored in just one
strand of a person’s DNA!
Damage to genetic material occurs from Radiation (x-rays,
gamma-rays, Ultraviolet light, etc) or from Chemical mutagens.
It involves the Destruction of the molecule, or the change it’s
properties such as structure, polarity, or ionization.
Damage to DNA, or genetic material in the cells occurs all of
The time, and the body has mechanisms to repair these damaged
molecules, or to replace them with undamaged ones. The
damaged molecules are recycled in to new ones, or ejected from
the body in our waste. When a cell or genetic material is not
capable of replication, or carrying on its function, it is recycled or
removed from the body. Thousands of cells and molecules
containing genetic information are destroyed each day in a normal
human being. We are obviously wonderfully made, and designed
to survive in difficult times and circumstances.
Studies on the DNA of modern Humans have given us some
information on the dates for Adam and Eve versus Noah.
A 1995 study revealed a date for the common ancestor of human
males as: between 35,000 and 47,000 B.C.
Mitochondrial DNA yields the common ancestor of all women
between a few thousand and tens of thousands of years earlier.
Of the eight people on Noah’s ark, the four men were blood
related to Noah, but the four women were not, and Eve would be
the most recent common ancestor for them.
The difference in the two biochemical dates roughly fits the time
frame suggested by the Genesis 5 genealogy.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - I
“Big Bang” Creation Event - II
3. Cooling rate of the cosmic background radiation: According
to the big bang, the older, and hence more expanded, the
universe becomes, the cooler will be the cosmic background
radiation. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation at
distances so great that we are looking back to when the universe
was just a half, a quarter, or an eighth of its present age show
temperature measurements that are hotter than the present
2.726oK by exactly the amount that the big bang theory would
4. Temperature uniformity of cosmic background: The
temperature of the cosmic background radiation varies by no
more than one part in ten thousand from one direction in the
heavens to any other. Such high uniformity only can be
explained if the background radiation arises from an extremely
hot primordial creation event.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - III
5. Ratio of photons to baryons in the universe: The ratio of
photons to baryons (protons and neutrons) in the universe
exceeds 100,000,000 to 1. This proved the universe is so
extremely entropic (efficient in radiating heat and light) the only
possible explanation is that the entire universe must be rapidly
exploding from an infinitely or near infinitely hot, dense state.
6. Temperature fluctuations in the cosmic background
radiation: For galaxies and galaxy clusters to form out of a big
bang creation event temperature fluctuations in maps of the
cosmic background radiation should measure at a level of about
one part in a hundred thousand. The predicted fluctuations were
detected at the expected level.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - IV
7. Power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations in the
cosmic background radiation: For the big bang universe with
a geometry suitable for the formation of stars and planets
capable of supporting physical life, the temperature fluctuations
in the cosmic background radiation will peak at an angular
resolution close to one degree with a few much smaller spikes at
at other resolutions. In other words, the power spectrum graph
will look like a bell curve with a few sub-peaks to the side of the
main peak. The Boomerang balloon experiment in April 2000
confirmed this big bang prediction.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - V
8. Cosmic expansion rate: A big bang creation event implies a
universal expansion o the universe from a beginning several
billion years ago. The most careful measurements of the
velocities of galaxies establish that such a cosmic expansion
has been proceeding for the past 14.9 billion years, a cosmic
age measure that is consistent with all other cosmic age
9. Stable orbits of stars and planets: Our universe manifests
stable orbits of planets about stars and stars about the nuclei
of galaxies. Such stable orbits are physically impossible unless
the universe is comprised of three very large and rapidly
expanding dimensions of space.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - VI
10. Existence of life and humans: Life and humans require a
stable solar-type star. However: If the universe cools down too
slowly, galaxies would trap radiation so effectively as to prevent
any fragmentation into stars. If the universe cools too rapidly,
no galaxies or stars will ever condense out of the cosmic gas.
If the universe expands too slowly, the universe will collapse
before solar-type stars reach their stable burning phase. If it
expands too rapidly, no galaxies or stars will ever condense
from the general expansion.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - VII
11. Abundance of helium in the universe: According to the big
bang, almost exactly one-forth the first four minutes
following the cosmic creation event. Stellar burning provides
the only other possible source of helium. Therefore,
astronomers can test the big bang by measuring the helium
abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star
burning has taken place. When they do this they determine a
primordial helium abundance = 0.2489 +/- 0.0015, a nearly
perfect fit with what the big bang predicts.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - VIII
12. Abundance of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in the universe:
Only the big bang can produce deuterium. Stars, on the other
hand, destroy deuterium. By measuring the deuterium
abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star
burning has occurred, astronomers can not only prove that we
live in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of big
bang the universe manifests. The measured results are
consistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by all
the other big bang tests.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - IX
13. Abundance of lithium in the universe: Only the big bang can
produce lithium. Stars destroy lithium. By measuring the lithium
abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star
burning has occurred, astronomers cannot only prove that we
live in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of big
bang the universe manifests. The measured results are
consistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by all
the other big bang tests.
14. Evidences for general relativity: Recent measurements now
elevate the theory of general relativity to the most exhaustively
tested and best proven principle in all of physics. The solution
to the equations of general relativity demonstrate that the
universe must be expanding from a beginning in the finite past.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - X
15. Space-time theorem of general relativity: A mathematical
theorem proven by Stephen hawking and Roger Penrose in
1970 establishes that if the universe contains mass, and if its
dynamics are governed by general relativity, then time itself
must be finite and must have been created when the universe
was created. Also, there must exist a CAUSE responsible for
bringing the universe (which must be expanding) into
existence independent of matter, energy, and all ten of the
cosmic space-time dimensions.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XI
16. Space energy density measurements: Albert Einstein and
Arthur Eddington both developed cosmological models without
a big bang by altering the theory of relativity to include a
cosmic space energy density term (a.k.a. the cosmological
constant) and assigning a particular value to that term.
Recently, astronomers determined that indeed a cosmic space
energy term does exist. Its value, however, proves that
Einstein’s and Eddingion’s models are incorrect. The measured
value actually increases the evidence for the big bang in that it
establishes the universe will continue to expand to an ever
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XII
17. Ten-dimensional creation calculation:A team led by Andrew
Strominger demonstrated that only in a universe framed in ten
space-time dimensions where six of the ten dimensions stop
expanding when the universe is a 10 millionth of a trillionth of a
trillionth of a trillionth of a second old is it possible to have
gravity and quantum mechanics coexist. This demonstration
also successfully predicted both special and general relativity
and solved a number of outstanding problems in both particle
physics and black hole physics. It implies that the big bang and
the laws of physics are valid all the way back to the creation
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIII
18. Steller ages: According to the big bang theory, different types
of stars will form at different epochs after creation. The colors
and surface temperatures of stars tells astronomers how long
they have been burning. These measured burning times are
consistent with the big bang. They also are consistent with all
other methods for measuring the time back to the cosmic
19. Galaxy ages: According to the big bang theory, nearly all the
galaxies in the universe will form early in its history within
about a 4-billion year window of time. Indeed, astronomers
measure the galaxies to have the predicted ages.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIV
20. Decrease in galaxy crowding: The big bang predicts that
galaxies will spread farther and farther apart from one another
as the universe expands. Hubble Space Telescope images
show that the farther away in the cosmos one looks (and,
because of light’s finite velocity, the farther back in time) the
more crowded together are the galaxies. In fact, looking back
to when the universe was but a third of its present age, the
Space Telescope images reveal galaxies so tightly packed
together that they literally are ripping spiral arms away from
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XV
21. Photo album history of the universe: Since the big bang
predicts that nearly all the galaxies will form at about the same
time, and since galaxies change their appearance significantly
as they age, images of portions of the universe at progressively
greater and greater distances (and, because of light’s finite
velocity, farther and farther back in time) should show dramatic
changes in the appearances of the galaxies. Hubble Space
Telescope images verify the predicted changes in the
appearances of galaxies.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVI
22. Ratio of ordinary matter to exotic matter: In the big bang
universe, for the galaxies and stars to form and develop so that
a site suitable for the support of physical life will be possible,
the cosmos must exhibit a ratio of exotic matter (matter that
does not interact well with radiation) to ordinary matter (matter
that strongly interacts with radiation) that measures roughly five
or six to one. Recent measurements reveal just such a ratio
for the universe.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVII
23. Abundance of beryllium and boron in elderly stars: Long
before the first stars can possibly form, the big bang fire-ball
during the first few minutes after the creation event will
generate tiny amounts of boron and beryllium if, and only if, the
universe contains a significant amount of exotic matter.
Astronomers have confirmed that primordial boron and
beryllium exists in the amounts predicted by the big bang
theory and their measurements of the amount of exotic matter.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVIII
24. Numbers of Population I, II, and III stars: The big bang
predicts that as the universe expands it will produce three
distinct populations of stars. At its current age the big bang also
predicts that astronomers should see certain specific numbers
and masses of the three different populations. Astronomers do
indeed see the predicted numbers and masses of stars for the
three different populations.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIX
25. Population, locations, and types of black holes and
neutron stars: A big bang universe of the type that makes
possible a site suitable for the support of physical life will after
many billions of years of star burning produce a relatively
small population of stellar mass black holes and a somewhat
larger population of neutron stars in virtually every galaxy.
Large galaxies are expected to produce supermassive
(exceeding a million solar masses) black holes in their central
cores. Astronomers, indeed, observe the predicted
populations, locations, and types of black holes and neutron
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XX
26. Dispersion of star clusters and galaxy clusters: The big
bang predicts that as the universe expands different types of
star clusters and galaxy clusters will disperse at specific rates
that will increase with time. It also predicts that the densest
star clusters will not disperse. However, the orbital velocities of
their stars about the cluster’s center will “evolve” toward a
predictable randomized condition known as virialization. The
virial times depend on the cluster mass and size and on the
individual masses of the stars. Astronomers observe the
dispersal rates and virial times predicted by the big bang.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXI
27. Number and type of space-time dimensions: A big bang
universe of the type that makes possible a site suitable for the
support of physical life must begin within ten rapidly expanding
space-time dimensions. At about 10-43 seconds (about a ten
millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second) after the
creation event six of the ten dimensions must cease expanding
while the other four continue to expand at a rapid rate. Several
experiments and calculations confirm that we live in such a
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXII
28. Masses and flavors of neutrinos: All currently viable big
bang models require that the dominant form of matter in the
universe be a form of exotic matter called “cold dark matter”.
Astronomers and physicists already know that neutrinos are
very plentiful in the universe and that they are “cold” and “dark”.
Recent experiments establish that neutrinos oscillate (that is,
transform) from one flavor or type to another (the three
neutrino flavors are electron, muon, and tau). This oscillation
implies that a neutrino particle must have a mass between a
few billionths and a millionth of an electron mass. Such a
range of masses for the neutrino satisfies the requirement for
the viable big bang models.
“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXIII
29. Populations and types of fundamental particles: In the big
bang the rapid cooling of the universe from a near infinitely
high temperature and a near infinitely dense state will generate
a zoo of different fundamental particles of predictable
properties and predictable populations. Particle accelerator
experiments which duplicate the temperature and density
conditions of the early universe have verified all the types and
populations of particles predicted within the energy limits of the
30 Cosmic density of protons and neutrons: Four independent
methods for determining the density of protons and neutrons in
the universe establish that the density measured is the same as
what the big bang predicts for a universe that contains the stars
and planets necessary for life.
The star declaring the birth of Jesus was most assuredly a
super Novae explosion!