chapter 5 gross microscopic bone anatomy l.
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Chapter 5 Gross & Microscopic Bone Anatomy. The Skeletal System. Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into 2 divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton. Functions of Bones. Support body Protect soft organs

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slide2
The Skeletal System

Parts of the skeletal system

  • Bones (skeleton)
  • Joints
  • Cartilages
  • Ligaments

Divided into 2 divisions

  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
slide3
Functions of Bones
  • Support body
  • Protect soft organs
  • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles
  • Storage of minerals and fats
  • Blood cell formation
slide4
Bones of the Human Body

The skeleton has 206 bones

Two types of bone tissue

  • Compact bone

- Homogeneous

  • Spongy bone

- Small needle-like pieces of bone

- Many open spaces

slide6
Paranasal Sinuses
  • Hollow parts of bones surrounding nasal cavity
  • Functions:
    • Lighten the skull
    • Resonate and amplify voice
slide7
The Hyoid Bone
  • Only bone that doesn’t articulate with another bone
  • Moveable base for tongue
slide8
Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone

Know 7 Structures

1. Diaphysis

  • Shaft
  • compact bone

2. Epiphysis

  • Ends of the bone
  • mostly spongy bone
slide9

3. Periosteum

  • Outside covering of diaphysis
  • Fibrous connective tissue membrane

4. Sharpey’s fibers

  • Secure periosteum to bone

5. Arteries

  • Supply bone cells with nutrients
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6. Articular cartilage

  • Covers the ends
  • hyaline cartilage
  • Decreases friction

7. Medullary cavity

  • Cavity of shaft
  • Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults
  • Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants
slide11
Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

Know 6 parts:

1. Osteon (Haversian System)

  • A unit of bone

2. Central (Haversian) canal

  • Opening in the center
  • For blood vessels & nerves

3. Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals

  • perpendicular to central canal
  • For blood vessels & nerves
slide12

4. Lacunae

  • Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)
  • Arranged in rings

5. Lamellae

  • Rings around central canal

6. Canaliculi

  • Tiny canals
  • Radiate from central canal to lacunae
  • Transport system
slide13
Changes in the Growing Skeleton
  • In embryos, the skeleton is hyaline cartilage
  • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone

-Cartilage remains in isolated areas

        • Bridge of the nose
        • Parts of ribs
        • Joints
slide14
Bone Growth

Epiphyseal (growth) plates

- growth of long bone during childhood

- New cartilage is continuously formed

- Older cartilage ossified (broken down & replaced by bone)

slide15

Remodeled & lengthened

- until growth stops

- Bones change shape somewhat & grow in width

slide16
Types of Bone Cells

1. Osteocytes

    • Mature bone cells

2. Osteoblasts – b for build

    • Bone-forming cells

3. Osteoclasts – hard c for kill

    • Bone-destroying cells
    • Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
  • Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
slide17
Developmental Aspects
  • At birth, skull bones incomplete
  • Bones joined by fibrous membranes – fontanelles
  • Fontanelles replaced by bone within 2 years
  • Fetal skull is large compared to total body length
slide19
Bone Fractures
  • A break in a bone
  • Types

1. Closed (simple) fracture –does not penetrate skin

2. Open (compound) fracture –penetrates through skin

  • Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization

- Realignment of the bone

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Repair of Bone Fractures

1. Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed

2. Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a cartilaginouscallus

3. Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus

4. Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch