Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy

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  1. Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy • Chris Rorden University of South Carolina Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders University of South Carolina

  2. Brain Sub-Divisions Telencephalon – Cortex, Limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb Diencephalon Thalamus, Hypothalamus Mesencephalon Tegmentum, Red Nucleus, Colliculi Rhombencephalon Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla Spinal Cord

  3. Diencephalon • Diencephalon = thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, prethalamus or subthalamus and pretectum • Thalamus • Oval Mass of Neurons in the Center of the Brain • Relays Sensorimotor Information to the Cortex

  4. Thalamus • Poor contrast on MRI scans – hard to see.

  5. Thalamic Injury • T2-weighted MRI • Bilateral injury to parts of thalamus

  6. Diencephalon • Hypothalamus • Body Heat, Water intake, Hormone Production, Emotional Expression, Food Consumption and Reproduction

  7. Midbrain, Hindbrain • Pons • Medulla Oblongata • Functions: Automatic Control Systems

  8. Ventral Brainstem • Mamillary Bodies • Medial Sulcus • Ventral Median Fissure • Pyramidal Tract • Pyramidal Decussation • Where signals cross • Ventral lateral sulcus

  9. Midbrain Dorsal Structures • Superior and Inferior Colliculus • The ‘little hills’. • Superior colliculi – help initiate eye movements, integrate visual, auditory and tactile information • Inferior colliculi- audition • Aka Corpora Quadrigemina (four seeds) Dorsal View of Brainstem Pineal Body Brachium Superior Colliculus Inferior Colliculus Colliculus Superior Inferior Trochlear Nerve

  10. Colliculi • Superior colliculi: eye movement control. Also maps touch and hearing onto vision • Inferior colliculi: pathway for auditory processing Sagittal View

  11. Internal Structures of the Midbrain • Tegmentum • Cerebral Aqueduct • Red Nucleus • Cranial nerve nuclei • Reticular Formation • Central Gray Area Transverse Section of Rostral Midbrain Tectum Tegmentum Basis Pedunculi

  12. Internal structures of the pons • Tegmentum • Ascending and Descending Fibers • Medial Lemniscus • Basilar Pons • Cortical Descending Tracts • Pontine Nuclei • Pontocerebellar Fibers Transverse Section of Mid Pons Teg- mentum Basilar

  13. Medulla Oblongata • Connects to Pontine Protrusion • Caudal Portion Contains Pyramidal Decussation • Where motor tracts cross over for control of contralateral side of the body Tegmentum Pyramid

  14. Landmarks of Medulla • Ventral • Ventrolateral Sulcus • Pyramidal Tract • Lateral Corticospinal Motor Tract • Dorsal • Dorsal Median Sulcus • Dorsolateral Sulcus • Olivary Nucleus

  15. Internal Medulla • Dorsal Tegmentum • Ventral Pyramidal Tract • Reticular Formation • Cardiac Center • Vasomotor Center • Respiratory Center

  16. Cerebellum • Modifies Cortical Activity • Distinctive Appearance • Gyri called Folia • Two Hemispheres • Three Lobes • Anterior • Posterior • Flocculonodular

  17. Cerebellum Posterior lobe • Rostral view • (bird’s eye) Anterior lobe

  18. Cerebellum • Caudal view (from the feet) Posterior lobe Anterior lobe Flocculus

  19. Cerebellum • Anterior view Flocculus Nodulus

  20. Cerebellum • Midsagittal slice Nodulus Flocculus