1. What type of stress/forces are found at a convergent plate boundary? Tensional Compressional Shear None of the above.
2. What type of stress/forces are found at a transform plate boundary? Tensional Compressional Shear None of the above.
3. Which type of plate boundary tends to have the deepest earthquakes? Convergent Divergent Transform They all have deep earthquakes.
4. What is the zone of earthquakes along a subduction boundary called? Mohodiscontinuitey Low velocity zone Wadati-Benioff zone Seismic Gap
5. What is the point on Earth’s surface directly above the location of an earthquake called? Focus Epicenter Slip surface Fault trace
6. Which of the following are surface waves? P-waves S-waves Rayleigh waves Love waves Both A and B Both C and D
7. Which of the following are Body waves? P-waves S-waves Rayleigh waves Love waves Both A and B Both C and D
8. Which of the following are the fastest waves? P-waves S-waves Rayleigh waves Love waves
9. How is the distance to an earthquake epicenter measured? Measure the difference in arrival time of P and S waves, and use a travel-time curve to determine the distance. Measure the difference in arrival time of P and Surface waves, and use a travel-time curve to determine the distance. Measure the distance between the P wave and the S wave Measure the distance between the P wave and the surface waves.
10. What is the minimum number of seismograph stations necessary to locate an earthquake? 2 3 4 5
11. The S-wave shadow zone is created by the inability of S-waves to travel through the liquid part of the asthenosphere. The inability of S-waves to travel through the outer core. The reflection of S-waves off the inner core. The refraction of S-waves as they pass through the mantle.
12. The P-wave shadow zone is caused by Interference patterns with the S-waves in the outer core. The inability of p-waves to travel through the outer core. The strong refraction of p-waves traveling through the outer core. The reflection of p-waves off the outer core.
C. 13. Which of the following shows the arrival of a P-wave in the picture below? B. A. A. B. C. All squiggles look the same to me.
C. 14. Which of the following shows the arrival of surface waves in the picture below? B. A. A. B. C. All squiggles look the same to me.
15. Each whole number step up in magnitude on the Richter scale is equivalent to a ______ times step up in linear ground motion. 10 20 30 100
16. Each whole number step up in magnitude on the Richter scale is equivalent to a ______ times increase in total energy. 10 20 30 100
17. Which of the following is true about tsunamis? They have a large amplitude in the open ocean (> 10 m). They have a fairly short wavelength (< 10 m). They have a high frequency (> 10 waves/min.) They travel very fast ( > 500 km/hr).
18. What is the largest factor in determining how tall a tsunami’s height will be when the wave hits land? The size of the displacement on the ocean floor. The steepness of the coastline. The velocity of the wave. The frequency of the wave.
19. Why did the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean kill so many people? Lack of a tsunami warning system for the Indian ocean. Many coastlines rimming the Indian ocean are flat, low-lying area. High population densities in many areas surrounding the Indian ocean. All of the above.
20. Where does liquefaction occur? In uncompacted saturated soils. In rocks previously damaged by earthquakes. Along the surface trace of a fault. Underneath any double decker highway.
21. How can liquefaction be prevented? By injecting cementing agents into the soil. By sinking rigid beams into the ground. By pumping out ground water in sandy areas. It can’t be prevented.
22. Which of the following is not a piece of evidence that the PNW has had mega-quakes in the past? Japanese records of a tsunami created by a PNW quake. Sunken and “ghost” forests Native American legends telling of megaquakes. Tsunami deposits on PNW coastlines.
23. What type of fault is the Seattle fault? Shallow fault in the N. American plate Deep fault in the N. American plate Shallow fault in the Juan de Fuca plate. Deep fault in the Juan de Fuca plate.
24. Why is the Alaskan Way Viaduct at high risk from damage during an earthquake? Located on landfill that may liquefy Located next to an aging sea wall Double decker design may pancake. Located in potential megaquake territory. Come on, this is SO obvious. It is doomed in a megaquake for all of the above reasons.
25. A building material flexes during an earthquake, but then returns to its original shape. This material exhibited Elastic deformation Brittle deformation Plastic deformation Magical properties
26. What type of fault is shown in the picture below? (picture is a cross-section view) Normal fault Reverse fault Strike-slip fault None of the above.
27. What type of fault is shown in the picture below? (picture is a cross-section view) Normal fault Reverse fault Strike-slip fault None of the above.
A 28. Which block is the hanging wall in the picture below? B A B Both neither
29. What type of plate boundary typically has strike-slip faults? Converging Diverging Transform None of the above.
30. Which material below can suffer from “bird-caging” during an earthquake? Brick Wood Steel Rebar Concrete
31. Why do chimneys tend to topple during earthquakes? They are made of brick, which is brittle. They stick up above the roof-line, and are not supported. They have been weakened by prolonged exposure to heat from the fireplace. Both A and B.
32. What is seismic isolation? Safe rooms where people can go during an earthquake. Floors that are reinforced so that they will not pancake during an earthquake. Using shear walls to isolate stresses during earthquakes. Using isolation bearings to absorb earthquake motion instead of the building.
33. What can keep a tall skyscraper from toppling during an earthquake? Make the center of mass of the building below ground level. Secure it with large steel cables to nearby tall objects. Have the building be flexible enough to transmit the wave energy from the base of the building to the top. You can’t. They are doomed like dominoes.
Answer Key • B 11. B 21. D 31. D • C 12. C 22. C 32. D • A 13. A 23. A 33. A • C 14. C 24. E • B 15. A 25. A • F 16. C 26. B • E 17. D 27. A • A 18. B 28. A • A 19. D 29. C • B 20. A 30. C