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Chapter 14: Latin West . Warm Up Chapter 13. Mali empire prospered bc of: Ruler of Mali Empire: His impact in Africa: Capital of Mali Empire: Ibn Battuta : How does Islam get in Africa: How do the Turks view the Hinduist ? How did Islam get in India:. I. Rural Growth and Crises

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warm up chapter 13
Warm Up Chapter 13
  • Mali empire prospered bc of:
  • Ruler of Mali Empire:
  • His impact in Africa:
  • Capital of Mali Empire:
  • IbnBattuta:
  • How does Islam get in Africa:
  • How do the Turks view the Hinduist?
  • How did Islam get in India:
I. Rural Growth and Crises
    • A. Peasants and Population
    • Peasants were bound to the land in serfdom
    • Life of a peasant:
    • Feudalism bound the people to meager life of serfdom
    • Peasants lived in a one room cottage with little furniture and no luxuries
    • Over 50% of their labor fruits went to the landowner
    • Serfs had no incentive to improve farming practices..
    • Why?
Role of Men and women: both worked in the fields but women were still subordinate to men
  • Pg. 382 Thomas Aquinas quote
  • Population doubled between 1000 and 1445 (impact):population grew because of new agricultural technologies but made quality of life go down for peasants
  • B. Black Death and impact
  • brought from Kaffa to Italy in 1346by the Mongol expansion
  • Plague ravaged for 2 years throughout Europe killing 1/3 of the people
The most common form of the Black Death was the bubonic plague
  • This was usually spread by fleas that lived on rats
  • Another form was called the pneumonic plague and it was spread through the air by personal contact
  • impact on labor:
  • Labor became more expensive and gave rise to peasant uprisings, higher wages, and eventually end to serfdom
  • First sign of infection was the development of large dark splotches on the skin
  • Most people died within a few days
  • Many people believed the plague was a punishment sent by God
Serfdom disappears in Europe because of the high price of labor and the low cost of food
  • Many serfs bought their freedom or ran away
  • Nobles could not use all the land they had so they began to sell it to others
  • C. Mines and Mills
  • Industrial Technologies: Watermill and Windmill
  • Mills powered by water could now grind grain and flour, saw logs, and make paper
  • Mills were built along rivers and was controlled by dams
During the winter water mills were useless so the people used windmills to power their endeavors
  • Mills were expensive to build but created great profit to owners
  • Mining boomed during this period
  • Iron, silver, copper, and lead
  • Used these metals for cannons, coins, church bells, etc.
  • Because of these new “job opportunities” many people (serfs) moved to the urban areas
II. Urban Revival
    • A. Trading Cities
    • Urbanization: people moving from the countryside to the cities
    • Cities are now the focal for economy not the countrysides
    • Most of the early trading cities were found in Italy, with Venice being the most important
    • Other Italian cities, wanting to get wealthy, created their own trade routes
    • Trade in the north was dominated by the Hanseatic League
Group of northern German cities and towns that worked together to promote and protect trade
  • Controlled most of the trade between Europe, Russia, and the Baltic region
  • Textile was dominated by England and parts of Italy
  • England could export cloth at a great profit
  • B. Civic Life
  • more freedom, social mobility in the cities than on the feudal manor
  • Jews blamed for Black Death creating anti Semitism
  • Guilds regulated trade, set standards, and prices for goods sold in cities
Banking industry:
  • Now money became more accepted
  • This led to some merchants allowing their customers to buy goods on credit
  • Credit = the promise of later payment
III. Learning, Literature, and Renaissance
    • A. Universities and Learning
    • Monasteries were center of learning
    • By 1200 AD, colleges and universities emerged: as centers of learning focusing on law, medicine, or theology
    • Bologna—famous for law faculty
    • Theology was most prominent study because theologians sought to synthesize the rational philosophy of Greeks with the Christian faith known as scholasticism
warm up
Warm Up
  • Explain the impact of the Black Death on labor:
  • Why did people go to the church instead of doctors for healing?
  • Urbanization:
  • Italian city that dominates trade:
  • German cities states that dominate trade in northern Europe:
  • Group that regulated trade and set prices:
  • Why was theology the most prominent study?
B. Humanists and Printers
  • “new learning” – interest in and study of the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature
  • Studied the original manuscripts
  • Geoffrey Chaucer
  • The Canterbury Tales consists of a collection of stories told by a group of 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury
  • Dante
  • Divine Comedy tells the story of the journey through nine layers of Hell and entry into Paradise
  • The best of the northern humanists, was Dutch
  • Criticized the Church and wanted to reform it, but not leave it
  • Saw education as the means to reform
  • Gutenberg
  • Influence of Humanist writers increased by the printing press
  • Gutenberg perfected printing in 1454
  • By 1500 10 million works had been printed!
C. Artists
  • Four major artists of the Renaissance:
  • Michelangelo – painted the Sistene Chapel, sculptural masterpiece = David
  • Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
  • Raphael – famous for his madonnas (images of Jesus and Mary)
  • Donatello – sculptor, lived during the Early Renaissance
IV. Political and Military Transformation
    • A. Monarchs, Nobles, and Clergy
    • Weak monarchs, limited power
    • Innovations in weaponry: Armor piercing crossbows and firearms are brought about during the 13th century
    • King Philip the Fair of France reduced power of pope:
    • Began the first French parliament, the Estates-General
    • Arrested the pope and put a new French pope in power in Avignon
    • The pope’s authority was being compromised and a period of rival popes claimed authority in both Rome and Avignon came about
    • This rivalry causes the Great Western Schism that lasts for 37 years
England kings power was limited by pope
  • King John was fighting a war, in which he lost almost all of England’s French holdings, and needed money
  • He placed a new tax on the nobility
  • The nobles refused to pay and instead rebelled against their king
  • He is forced to sign the Magna Carta – “Great Charter”
  • Gives rights to the nobles that the king can’t take away and places limits on the king’s power
  • King can no longer arrest and punish people without following legal procedures
  • Set forth ideas about limiting gov’t and executive power
B. Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
  • France v England, Edward III calmed French throne
  • Military technology:crossbows, longbows, pikes, and cannons
  • French had superior cannons and destroyed English allies and finally defeated them
  • War left French monarchy stronger than before
C. New Monarchies in France and England
  • New monarchies have stronger power, national boundaries established
  • castle and knights now outdated: because of the invention of firearms
  • Militaries now consisted of bowmen, pikemen, musketeers, and artillery
  • monarchs taxed land, merchants, and church
  • Shift had now changed from nobles and church to monarchs
  • Monarchs now gain power (parliament in England, Estates General in France)
D. Iberian Unification
  • Spain and Portugal emerged through marriage alliance
  • Reconquest of Spain from Muslims in 1212
  • All of the Muslims were eventually driven out at the battle of Grenada
  • A major step in unifying Spain occurred with the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469
  • They pursued a strict policy of conformity to Catholicism
  • 1492 – all professed Jews were expelled from Spain, followed by the Muslims
  • To be Spanish was to be Catholic