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The Voice & Voice Disorders. SPPA 2000 Stephen Tasko. What is voice? Do voice and speech mean the same thing? If not, how are they different?. Source-filter theory simplified. Same source, different filters. Where is the voice produced?

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the voice voice disorders

The Voice & Voice Disorders

SPPA 2000

Stephen Tasko

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

slide2
What is voice?
  • Do voice and speech mean the same thing?
  • If not, how are they different?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

source filter theory simplified
Source-filter theory simplified

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

slide4

Same source, different filters

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

slide5
Where is the voice produced?
  • What anatomical structures do we need to produce voice?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

location of larynx
Location of Larynx

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

larynx view from above
Larynx: View From Above

back

esophagus

glottis

True vocal fold

epiglottis

front

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

muscular action on vocal folds
Muscular Action on Vocal Folds

Key Actions

  • Move together
  • Move apart
  • Tense
  • Slacken
  • Lengthen
  • Shorten

Glottis closed

(phonation)

Glottis open

(breathing)

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how is voice produced
How is voice produced?

Essentials for producing voice

  • Vocal folds must be approximated
  • Vocal folds must be tensed
  • Air pressure from respiratory system

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how do we characterize our voice
How Do We Characterize Our Voice?
  • Pitch
  • Loudness
  • Register
  • Quality

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

why do men women children speak at different pitches
Why do men, women & children speak at different pitches?
  • Men ↑ VF mass and length = ↓ pitch
  • Women ↓ VF mass and length = ↑ pitch
  • Children ↓ VF mass and length = ↑ pitch

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how do we vary pitch
How Do We Vary Pitch?
  • Make VF thinner and tenser = ↑ pitch
  • Make VF thicker and slacker = ↓ pitch

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how do we vary loudness
How Do We Vary Loudness?
  • Respiratory Pressure
    • ↑ pressure ↑ loudness
  • Tighten the Valve
    • ↑ tightening of valve = ↑ loudness

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

what is a vocal register
What is a Vocal Register?
  • Modal: Where we typically speak
  • Falsetto: High pitched, thin voice
  • Glottal fry: Low pitched, creaky voice

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

what is voice quality
What is Voice Quality?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how do we describe disordered voice
General Clinical Terms

Phonation

Dysphonia

Aphonia

How Do We Describe Disordered Voice?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

broad types of voice disorders
Broad Types of Voice Disorders
  • Organic Voice Disorders
  • Neurological Voice Disorders
  • Functional Voice Disorder

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

how do we perform a voice assessment
Case History

Clinical Evaluation

Voice Sample Collection

Instrumental Assessment

Diagnostic Therapy

Diagnosis

Plan

Prognosis

How Do We Perform a Voice Assessment?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

what is the range of voice treatment options
What is the Range of Voice Treatment Options?
  • Voice Therapy
  • Medical Treatment
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Combination of above

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

organic voice disorders common vocal fold pathologies

Organic Voice Disorders:Common Vocal Fold Pathologies

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

why do we get vocal fold pathologies
Vocal use patterns

Misuse

Abuse/phonotrauma

Exposure to Laryngeal Irritants

Smoke

Pollutants

Acid reflux

Alcohol

Infection

Bacterial

Viral

Improper hydration

Side effects from medication

Why do we get vocal fold pathologies?

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

normal larynx
Normal Larynx

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

laryngitis
Laryngitis

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

vocal fold nodules
vocal fold nodules

Before Treatment

  • Following Treatment
  • 3 months
  • voice therapy

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

vocal fold polyps
Vocal Fold Polyps

Before Treatment

  • Following Treatment
  • 6 months
  • voice therapy
  • surgery

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

vocal fold cyst
Vocal Fold Cyst

Before Treatment

  • Following Treatment
  • 2 months
  • surgery

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

other common pathologies
Other common pathologies

Contact Ulcer

Reinke’s Edema

Intubation Granuloma

Laryngeal papilloma

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

neurological voice disorders

Neurological Voice Disorders

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

slide32

Vocal Fold Paralysis

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

slide33

Vocal Tremor

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

spasmodic dysphonia
Spasmodic Dysphonia

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko

functional dysphonia e g muscle tension dysphonia
Functional Dysphonia(e.g. muscle tension dysphonia)

Pre-Tx

Pst-Tx

SPPA 2000 Voice Lecture Stephen Tasko