REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN
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REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc) DIRECTOR/ CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIA. Outline. Introduction

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REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc)DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCKFEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIA


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Major Aflatoxin contaminated feed ingredients

  • Major risk factors for Nigeria

  • Aflatoxins in fish, pig and poultry

  • Previous efforts made on regulation of Aflatoxin in livestock feeds

  • Status of animal feed regulation in Nigeria

  • Conclusion


Introduction
Introduction

  • Nigeria in West Africa.

  • About 160 million people.

  • 36 states and 773 LGAs.

Africa

Nigeria


Animal resources of nigeria
Animal Resources of Nigeria

  • Nigeria has the largest animal resources in the West African region.

    • Cattle 17 million

    • Sheep 33 million

    • Goats 52 million

    • Poultry 166 million

    • Pigs 6.6 million

    • Camels and Donkey 0.7 million

      Source: FAOSTAT, 2009

  • Agriculture contributes 44% to National GDP - Livestock contributes 25% of the Agricultural GDP


Aflatoxins
Aflatoxins

  • Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by different species of Aspergillus, a fungus, the most notable ones being Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitium

  • Aflatoxin B1 is known to be the most significant form that causes serious risk to animals and human health


Common aflatoxin contaminated feed sources
Common Aflatoxin contaminated feed sources

  • Protein sources :

    • Groundnut cake

    • Palm kernel meal

    • Cotton seed cake

  • Energy sources:

    • Rice-bran

    • Wheat

    • Maize and by-products

  • Aflatoxin B1 is the most common form of the toxin- found in groundnut, maize and sorghum.


Major risk factors
Major Risk factors

  • Tropical and subtropical environmental conditions

  • Poor feed storage and shipment conditions

  • lack of regulation in amount of aflatoxin in food and feed

  • Less attention given to feed quality control

  • Cultural practices of feed preservation

  • Low awareness on effects of aflatoxins


Aflatoxins in fish
Aflatoxins in fish

  • Fish farming is becoming increasingly lucrative and proficient in Nigeria

  • 45% of the fish consumed in Nigeria are smoked - dried

  • Studies have confirmed that aflatoxin B concentrations in the sample of smooked fish were between 1.5 – 8.1 μg/kg, Adebayo-Tayo et al., 2008 .

  • Smoked-dried fish stored for sale in some parts of the country may be heavily contaminated with aflatoxins

  • An indication that prolonged intake of smoked fish with these metabolites may constitute potential public health hazard


Aflatoxin in pigs
Aflatoxin in Pigs

  • It has been demonstrated that for each mg/kg increase of aflatoxin in the diet of pigs, the growth rate would be depressed by 16 % .

  • Feeding diets contaminated with aflatoxin increases the risk of vitamin s A and E deficiency in pigs and also depresses the immune system

  • Dietary aflatoxin B1 concentrations from 70 to 140 mg/kg decreased the rate of weight gain by 5 to 11 %, (Yueming Dersjant-Li.,et al; 2003)

  • Immune-suppressive effects of aflatoxin in pigs renders them more susceptible to any concurrent diseases - viral influenza and mycoplasma pneumonia and secondary infections .

  • Cumulatively , a big lose to pig fatteners who are after faster turnovers


Aflatoxin in poultry
Aflatoxin in poultry

  • Poultry -the most affected, as over 60% of poultry feeds sources are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination

  • Poultry absorb aflatoxin faster but excrete the metabolites slower than other animals

  • Feeding of aflatoxin contaminated feed to poultry leads to:

    • Reduced feed intake

    • Reduced growth rate

    • Poor feed conversion efficiency

  • These are key indices in a successful poultry production


Aflatoxin in man
Aflatoxin in man

  • Residues of aflatoxin and metabolites in food may lead to:

    Liver damage, carcinogenic effect s in man, severe tissue and organ damage and can eventually result in death

  • Food stuff containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb is not wholesome for human consumption and animal feeds.


Toxin factors
Toxin factors

  • Heat stable – not destroyed by processing .

  • Invisible, odourless and tasteless .

  • Toxin passes through the food chain to humans - residues in muscles, kidneys, liver, eggs etc

  • Reduces feed intake, nutrients in feed and nutrient absorption, altered nutrient metabolism, immuno-suppression and cell death.

Abdu, 2012


Regulations on aflatoxin
Regulations on Aflatoxin

  • No specific regulation on Aflatoxin in livestock feeds yet

  • NLDC in 2012 set up a committee to come up with a comprehensive and all encompassing proposal on regulation and standards of livestock feeds

  • Committee’s report to be considered and sent to the NCA’s meeting in 2013

  • ATA supports the institutionalization and review of regulations that will enhance food safety and international trade.


Status of animal feed regulation
Status of animal feed regulation

  • Existing legislation is being reviewed to address current challenges in the livestock feed industry

  • Collaborating organizations and institutions include:

    • FMA&RD and agencies

    • SON

    • Feed industries

    • Livestock famers


Challenges of aflatoxin in nigeria
Challenges of Aflatoxin in Nigeria

  • Un-quantified economic consequences:

    • Trade inhibition

    • Direct and indirect production losses

    • Post harvest losses to farmers

    • Disease burden in both human and animals

    • Mortality in both human and animals


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Feeding aflatoxin contaminated materials to animals and aquacultureimpairs:

    • Feed intake

    • Efficiency of feed utilization and/or animal health

    • Moreover, residues of aflatoxins, consumed by animals, can appear in animal products consumed by human

  • Realistic regulations on control of aflatoxins in animal feeds is crucial and important aspect of food safety.