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Chapter 6. Darragh L. Curtin. Resident Population—Selected Characteristics, 1790–2005 (in thousands). NOTES: n.a. = not available. 1. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Charles H. Houston.

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Darragh L. Curtin


Resident Population—Selected Characteristics, 1790–2005

(in thousands)

NOTES: n.a. = not available.

1. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

charles h houston
Charles H. Houston
  • NAACP (National Association for Advancement of Colored People) attorney who was involved in some of the first court cases to contest the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision. The precedents set by Charles H. Houston provided the framework for which the Brown vs. Board of Education decision was based on. Represented cases such as Missouri vs. Gaines and Murray vs. University of Maryland.
thurgood marshall
Thurgood Marshall
  • Before becoming the First African American U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall was instrumental in organizing the NAACP arguments in the Brown vs. Board of Education case.
president dwight d eisenhower
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Tried to enforce Brown vs. Board of Education decision by not getting the Federal Government involved. Instead, he left it to local and state officials to implement the new law of the land provided by the Brown vs. Board of Education decision. In spite of his lack of commitment to the ideals of desegregation, he was an important mediator between Governor Faubus of Arkansas and the desegregation of central high school.
governor orval faubus
Governor Orval Faubus
  • Ordered Arkansas National Guard units to be stationed at Central High School located in Little Rock, Arkansas to provide resistance to desegregation. His decision to do so went against the new federal laws regarding the integration of schools. Eventually, the situation was resolved by the federal courts by providing an injunction restraining him from further interference. This in turn, reaffirmed the decision of Brown vs. Board of Education.
robert kennedy
Robert Kennedy
  • Attorney General of the United States who continued to fight not only racism in schools, but racism across the country. He was an outspoken critic on the issue of integration of schools and was vital to the legal fight of James Meredith who sought to enroll at the University of Mississippi. The Governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, fought to keep the University of Mississippi an all white school by blocking James Meredith’s admission. Robert Kennedy was ordered to enforce by the U.S. Court of Appeals decision to allow him to attend the University.
governor george wallace
Governor George Wallace
  • Alabama governor who once said he would “stand at the school house door” to keep Alabama schools segregated. Similar to Mississippi governor Ross Barnett, he sought to block the enrollment of African Americans at the University of Alabama. He tried to reassert that it was a state’s right to integrate schools or not.
dr martin luther king jr
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  • The major leader of the Christian Leadership Conference which he used non-violent passive resistance to segregation. Widely known for his infamous “I have a Dream” speech in which he stated people should be judged by the content of their character, and not by the color of their skin. He utilized the black churches in his efforts to fight racism across all facets of society.
  • American Education 1945-2000, Gerald L. Gutek
  • Time Almanac of 2005
  • (U.S. Census Bureau)