Roles and Functions of Basin & sub-basin organizations IWRM for River Basin Organisations
WRM functions Learning objectives • Learn the main basic functions for water resources management on the river basin scale • Discuss institutional arrangements and introduce a process-thinking to conduct the water resources management functions
WRM functions River basin management The boundaries for a river basin, the catchment divides set by topography, provide a natural unit for water resources management.
WRM functions Basic functions for water resources management IWRM on the river basin scale should be focussed on a set of basic water resources management functions.
WRM functions Water Allocation Pollution Control Stakeholder participation WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Basin Planning Monitoring Information Management Flood & Drought Management Economical Management
In the MRC Context • International River Basin Organization • Sub-basin (Sub area) Organization • National Organization • National River Basin Organization
There are now over 260 international river basins. Together they cover 45 percent of the earth’s land surface Carry 80 percent of its fresh water. They include parts of 145 nations, 21 of which lie entirely within a shared basin. Int’l River Basin Organizations
Birth of Mekong Cooperation • 1957 Mekong Committee • 1978 Interim Mekong Committee • 1995 Mekong River Commission
Mekong Committee 1957 • Committee for Coordination and Investigation of Mekong River • Goal: "formulation, investigation, coordination, supervision and control of water resources development plans for the LMB"
Interim Mekong Committee 1977 • 1975 - Joint Declaration of Principles for Utilization of the Waters of the LMB • Legal framework for cooperation • 1975: Cambodia withdrew from Mekong Committee • 1977 - Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam formed Interim Mekong Committee
Mekong River Commission • 1991 Cambodia asked to rejoin • 1992 – 1994 - search for new agreement framework • Rise of ASEAN as regional framework • Increased economic development of region • China launched construction of Manwan Dam • April 1995 - signing of Mekong Agreement established Mekong River Commission • international organization (4 countries) • reports to Council of Ministers • Joint Committee and National Mekong Committees
Government ofCambodia Government ofLaos Government ofThailand Government ofVietnam COUNCIL(Members at Ministerial and Cabinet Level) DONOR CONSUL-TATIVE GROUP(Donor countries and cooperating institutions) NATIONAL MEKONG COMMITTEES (NMC)(Member Agencies) JOINT COMMITTEE(Members at level of Head of Department or higher) Mekong River Com-mission Secretariat MRC Organisational Structure National Mekong Committee Secretariats
Provision of common arena for member states to regularly meet and discuss issues related to their shared water resources. Promoting information sharing among various countries and agencies Developing a co-ordinated water resource development and management scheme ROLES OF RIVER BASIN ORGANIZATIONS
Securing assistance from donor countries and development aid agencies Resolution of conflicts among member states Sharing of costs and benefits in water resources development/management ROLES OF RBOs CONT.
Summary of key roles • Monitoring, investigating and co-ordinating and regulating, • Planning and management, and • Developing and regulating.
WRM functions at National Level Institutional arrangements Ministry of Water Other ministries CENTRAL GOVERNMENT River basin organisation Other regional authorities DECENTRALISED ORGANISATION FUNCTIONS Water resources management functions Environmental, land and infrastructure management functions OUTPUT Status of water resources
WRM functions Institutional arrangements • The RBO shall • act as a regulatory body for the functions they have been given responsibility for • act as a strong stakeholder for the other functions
WRM functions Lessons learnt • Lack of clear role for the RBOs • Lack of autonomy for the RBOs • Lack of recognition of the RBO among stakeholders • Lack of human and financial resources of the RBOs • Lack of adaptive management in the RBOs • Lack of cross-sectoral coordination
WRM functions Lessons learnt The development of an institutional arrangement for conducting all water resources management functions is a long and on-going process.
WRM functions Conclusions • Focus on water resources management functions • Different actors may have the responsibility for performing the WRM functions • The RBO must work as a regulatory body for functions it has been given responsibility for, but also act as an active stakeholder to promote actions in the areas outside of its jurisdiction