Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT and USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID. The Great Basin (From Cronquist, A., et al 1972) The Great Basin
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Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw
Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT and
USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID.
(From Cronquist, A., et al 1972)
* Broader range of organisms.
* Cover and soil stabilization.
* Forage availability extended.
* Improve esthetics.
*Higher quality forage.
* Supplies critical nutrients and succulence.
*Fruits, seeds, and leaves of forbs are frequently a principal food for upland game birds
Grasses Sagebrush Communities
ForbsAvailability & Utility of Principal Native Species
Western Yarrow handling and seeding
One flower helianthella
Yellow sweetclover Sainfoin
Showy goldeneyePrincipal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt. Brush Communities.
Pounds purchased in 2000*
*BLM Purchases in 2000
Pounds purchased in 2000*
*BLM Purchases in 2000
Of the 76 forbs species listed,
63 were natives
13 were introduced.
Safe sites for establishment
Micro sites for increasing moisture retention
Dry land types are hybrids between the rhizomatous M. falcata (yellow flower) and the deep rooted M. sativa (purple flower).
Dry land types adapted to the great basin at >10” (persists best at 12 +) precipitation.
Germination: Very little dormancy. Will germinate with fall moisture and is susceptible to winter kill.
Seed as dormant seeding LATE fall or early spring.
Very palatable semi-evergreen, nitrogen fixer, highly nutritious.
Establishes well when seed drilled (at ¼ to ¾ in.), or aerial applied and covered.
Establishes well at 12” precipitation does not withstand heavy grazing at dryer sites.
Palatable legume, deep rooted, occurring in sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush types.
Seed: Has a lomented pod that disarticulates at ripening.
34,000 seeds per pound.
Fall seed, some dormancy requiring 1 month stratification. Seed at ½ in., 2 lbs per acre.
Adapted to upper sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush (>14”).
Good forage and seed producer. Bird and small mammals utilize the seed.
Released varieties: Lutana, Monarch.
Non-bloating legume, adapted to >12 inches precipitation.
Highly palatable and nutritious, is preferred by deer, elk, and sage grouse.Seed: 18,000 seeds per lb. Seed at 2 to 5 lbs per acre in mix.
Released varieties: Eski, Remont.
Cultivar: Variety from Eagle Id. Will be released soon
Used by hens and chicks, harbors insects.
Very small seed- 4 million per pound.
Surface seed in the Fall, 0.25 to 1 lb per acre.
Asters as a group are an important component to the native communities.
Consist of a broad array of species.
Small seeded 2.5 million seeds per pound.
Requires 2-4 week stratification
Wide spread in Intermountain area.
Early spring green up, good wildlife forage.
Large seeds, 55,000 per pound.
Slow to establish, but very persistent.
V. multiflora- broadly adapted to many vegetative types. When purchasing seed be sure of the source. Ranges from Sage, p/j to sub alpine.
V. nevadensis- occurs in drier sites in the Great Basin.
Small seeded 1 million per pound. Does well on surface, can be drilled.
Good seed producer with strong seedlings.
Early spring green up.
Readily sought out by wildlife as a herbaceous forage, and seed is utilized by birds.
Seed: Generally small seeded, but do establish well on disturbed sites.
Little information on seed and seeding requirements.
No current releases
The importance of these species to sage grouse and other wildlife is becoming more understood.
Family Genus Common name .
Apiaceae Lomatium Desert parsley
Linaceae Linum Flax
Malvaceae Sphaeralcea Globemallow
Polygonaceae Eriogonum Desert Buckwheat
Scrophulariaceae Penstemon Penstemon
Species Origin Release Class
Eriogonum niveum SD Umatilla Cultivar
E. umbellatum CA Sierra Cultivar
Linum perenne SD Appar Cultivar (escaped?)
Lomatium spp. --- ----------- ----------
Penstemon eatonii UTRichfield Selected
P. palmeri UTCedar Cultivar
P.strictus NM Bandera Cultivar
P.venustus ID Clearwater Selected
Sphaeralcea coccinea ID ARS-2936 Germplasm
S. munroana UT ARS-2892 Selected
Species Germination Rule Viability Test
L. perenne X
P. eatonii X
P. palmeri X
cultivar being developed
Fruit: 3-angled achene
Seeds/pound: 120,000 (E. umbellatum)
600,000 (E. niveum)
Harvest: Summer - Fall
Cleaning: Screen, chop, screen
Seed quality: Viability test available.
Germination: Species and ecotypic variation occur.
Eriogonum restoration.: Seeding
Method: Drill (shallow), broadcast.
Germination: Prechilling usually
Seedlings/stand: Pioneering species.
Origin: Umatilla Co., Oregon
Area of use: Interior Pacific Northwest.
in Western U.S.
in the Southwest
persists in seedbank
salt desert shrublands
small seeded forbs and shrubs
Scientific Common Release Release
name name Origin name type .
P. eatonii Firecracker UTRichfield Selected
P. palmeri PalmerUT Cedar Cultivar
P.strictus Rocky Mt. NM Bandera Cultivar
P.venustus Alpine ID Clearwater Selected
Verified for geographic origin. No comparisons made with other germplasms of the species.
Germplasm compared on a common site with other germplasms.
Progeny tested to ensure that observed traits are heritable and stable.
Tested material for which there is considerable market demand.
Hedysarum borealis utahensis
Viguiera multiflora nevadensis