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Chapter 11

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  1. Chapter 11 Leadership and Trust 領導與信任

  2. Managers Versus Leaders管理者vs.領導者 • Managers • Persons whose influence on others is limited to the appointed managerial authority of their positions to reward and punish. 擁有獎賞與懲罰部屬的法定權力,其影響力限於職位上的職權。 • Leaders • Persons with managerial and personal power who can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons’ formal (position) authority alone. 能影響他人去執行超過正式職權所能命令的行為。 “Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders.” Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  3. 課堂各組作業─你認為什麼是領導者?10mins • 請討論出一個你們心目中的領導者(可以是政治界、學術界、產業界、娛樂運動界、工作或求學中的同事或同學等等) • 請列舉出你們認為他/她是您們的領導者的理由。有何特質、行為或事蹟。 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  4. Trait Theories Of Leadership領導者的特質理論 Theories that attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders • Attempts to identify traits that always differentiate leaders from followers and effective leaders from ineffective leaders have failed. • Attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  5. Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders from Nonleaders六項領導者的特質 • Drive驅力或膽識 • Desire to lead領導的慾望 • Honesty and integrity誠實和正直 • Self-confidence自信心 • Intelligence智慧 • Job-relevant knowledge專業知識 EXHIBIT 11.1 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  6. Behavioral Theories Of Leadership領導者的行為理論 • Theories that attempt to isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders • Behavioral studies focus on identifying critical behavioral determinants of leadership that, in turn, could be used to train people to become leaders. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  7. Leadership Behaviors or Styles • Autocratic style of leadership獨裁式之領導 • A leader who centralizes authority, dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation. 領導者是集中職權、指示工作方法、制定片面的決策以及限制員工參與 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  8. Leadership Behaviors or Styles (cont’d) • Democratic style of leadership民主式之領導 • A leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals, and uses feedback to coach employees. 讓員工參與決策、授權、鼓勵參與決定工作方法與目標、運用回饋教導員工 • A democratic-consultative leader seeks input and hears the concerns and issues of employees but makes the final decision him or herself.顧問式 • A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a say in what’s decided. 參與式 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  9. Leadership Behaviors or Styles (cont’d) • Laissez-faire style of leadership放任或無為而治式之領導 • A leader who gives employees complete freedom to make decisions and to decide on work methods 給予員工完全決策的自由,並由其選擇合適的方法來工作。 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  10. Continuum of Leader Behavior Democratic Participative EXHIBIT 11.2 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  11. 民主 參與 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  12. Leadership Behaviors or Styles (cont’d) • Conclusions about leadership styles • The laissez-faire leadership style is ineffective. • Quantity of work is equal under authoritarian and democratic leadership styles • Quality of work and satisfaction is higher under democratic leadership. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  13. 領導的行為理論 • 愛俄華(Iowa)大學研究 • 俄亥俄(Ohio)州立大學 • 密西根(Michigan)大學的研究 • 管理方格(Managerial Grid)理論 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  14. The Ohio State Studies • Studies that sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior • Initiating structure定規 The extent to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of employees to attain goals界定自己和部屬角色及行為以完成目標之程度 • Consideration關懷 The extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings希望維持一種互信,關心部屬的感覺和尊重其想法的工作關係之程度。 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  15. The University Of Michigan Studies • Studies that sought to identify the behavioral characteristics of leaders related to performance effectiveness • Employee oriented員工導向 • A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences. • Production oriented生產導向 • A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of a job, is concerned mainly with accomplishing tasks, and regards group members as a means to accomplishing goals. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  16. The Managerial Grid A two-dimensional view of leadership style that is based on concern for people versus concern for production Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  17. 管理方格理論 • 圖11-3 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  18. Contingency Theories Of Leadership領導的權變理論 • Fiedler contingency leadership model費德勒模式 • Path-Goal Theory路徑-目標模式 • Leader-participation model領導者-參與模式 • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership情境理論 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  19. Contingency Theories Of Leadership • Fiedler contingency leadership model費德勒模式 • The theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with employees and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader • Uses Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire, to measure the leader’s task or relationship orientation. • Identified three situational criteria—leader member relations(領導者-部屬關係), task structure(任務結構), and position power(職位權力)—that could be manipulated match an inflexible leadership style. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  20. The Findings of the Fiedler Model EXHIBIT 11.4 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  21. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  22. Path-Goal Theory路徑-目標模式 • It is a leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support • A leader’s motivational behavior: • Makes employee need satisfaction contingent on effective performance. • Provides the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. • Assumes that the leader’s style is flexible and can be changed to adapt to the situation at hand. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  23. Path-Goal Leadership Behaviors • Directive leader指導 • Lets employees know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. • Supportive leader支持 • Is friendly and shows concern for the needs of employees. • Participative leader參與 • Consults with employees and uses their suggestions before making a decision. • Achievement-oriented leader成就導向 • Sets challenging goals and expects employees to perform at their highest levels. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  24. Path-Goal Theory EXHIBIT 11.5 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  25. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  26. Leader-participation model (Vroom, Yetton and Jago)領導者-參與模式 • Provided a sequential set of rules for determining the form and amount of participation a leader should exercise in decision making according to different types of situations. • The model was a decision tree incorporating seven contingencies (whose relevance could be identified by making yes or no choices) and five alternative leader ship styles. • Assumed an adaptable leadership style. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  27. QR: Quality Requirement CR: Commitment Requirement LI: Leader Information ST: Problem Structure CP: Commitment Probability GC: Goal Congruence CO: Employee Conflict SI: Employee Information TC: Time Constraint GD: Geographical Dispersion MT: Motivation Time MD: Motivation-Development Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model EXHIBIT 11.6 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  28. Situational Leadership情境理論 • Leaders should adjust their leadership styles—telling命令, selling推銷, participating參與, and delegating授權—in accordance with the readiness of their followers. • Acceptance: Leader effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. • Readiness: a follower’s ability and willingness to perform. • At higher levels of readiness, leaders respond by reducing control over and involvement with employees. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  29. Situational Leadership情境理論 S1 S2 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  30. 高關係低任務 高關係高任務 情境理論 s1 S2 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  31. Emerging Approaches To Leadership • Charismatic leadership theory魅力式領導理論 • Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors • People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort and, because they like and respect their leaders, express greater satisfaction. • Charisma leadership appears to be most appropriate when the followers’ task has a ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  32. Charismatic Leadership魅力式領導理論 • A charismatic leader influences followers by: • Stating a vision that provides a sense of community by linking the present with a better future. • Communicating high expectations and expressing confidence that followers can attain them. • Conveying, through words and actions, a new set of values, and by his or her behavior setting an example for followers to imitate. • Making self-sacrifices and engaging in unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  33. Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders • Self-confidence自信 • Vision願景 • Ability to articulate the vision描繪願景的能力 • Strong convictions堅強的說服力 • Behavior that is out of the ordinary不尋常的行為 • Appearance外表 • Environmental sensitivity對環境的敏感度 EXHIBIT 11.8 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  34. Visionary Leadership願景式領導 “A vision should create enthusiasm, bringing energy and commitment to the organization.” • The key properties of a vision are inspirational possibilities that are value centered, realizable, and have superior imagery and articulation. • Visionary leadership • The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future that grows out of and improves upon the present Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  35. Skills of Visionary Leaders • The ability to explain the vision to others. • Make the vision clear in terms of required actions and aims through clear oral and written communication. • The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through the leader’s behavior. • Behaving in ways that continually convey and reinforce the vision. • The ability to extend the vision to different leadership contexts. • Sequencing activities so the vision can be applied in a variety of situations Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  36. Transactional 業務性Leaders versus Transformational轉換性Leaders • Transactional leaders • Leaders who guide or motivate their followers toward established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. • Transformational leaders • Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  37. The Challenge of Team Leadership • Becoming an effective team leader requires: • Learning to share information. • Developing the ability to trust others. • Learning to give up authority. • Knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede. • New roles that team leaders take on • Managing the team’s external boundary • Facilitating the team process Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  38. Team Leader Roles領導者角色 教練 對外聯絡官 衝突管理者 問題解決者 EXHIBIT 11.9 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  39. Employee characteristics員工特性 Experience Training Professional orientation Indifference toward organizational regards Job characteristics工作特性 Unambiguous Routine Intrinsically satisfying Organizational characteristics組織特性 Explicit formalized goals Rigid rules and procedures Cohesive work groups Substitutes for Leadership替代領導 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  40. Five Dimensions of Trust • Integrity正直 • Honesty and truthfulness • Competence能力 • Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills • Consistency一致性 • Reliability, predictability, and good judgment • Loyalty忠誠 • Willingness to protect and save face for a person • Openness開放 • Willingness to share ideas and information freely EXHIBIT 11.10 Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006

  41. Types Of Trust • Deterrence-based trust基於威嚇 • Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated • Knowledge-based trust基於知識 • Trust based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction • Identification-based trust基於認同 • Trust based on an emotional connection between the parties Management─ Leadership and Trust 吳明泉博士 2006