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End of the Republic

End of the Republic. After Caesar died His 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony (Caesar’s general) and Marcus Lepidus Second triumvirate defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42BCE. Lepidus. Octavian. Antony. Second triumvirate did not last long.

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End of the Republic

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  1. End of the Republic • After Caesar died • His 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony (Caesar’s general) and Marcus Lepidus • Second triumvirate defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42BCE Lepidus Octavian Antony

  2. Second triumvirate did not last long • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire from political life • Octavian declared war on Antony when he married Cleopatra • 31BCE-Octavian’s forces fought sea battle at Actium in Greece • A year later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in Egypt to avoid capture • Octavian became undisputed ruler of Rome

  3. Mark Antony

  4. Cleopatra

  5. Background info… • Octavian believed Rome needed one strong leader • Senate agreed and appointed Octavian consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life-27BCE • Octavian gave himself the title of Augustus-Majestic One

  6. Rome became an Empire and Augustus was the Emperor. Augustus Caesar

  7. Imperialism • a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

  8. Reasons for Imperial Rome • Imperial = empire = large area under single rule • Failure to have change of power from one emperor to the next. • Civil war giving rise to Octavian (Augustus) Caesar.

  9. Under Augustus • Left Senate in tact (mainly as advisors). • Civil service started to enforce laws. • Fair tax system • Used a census to count all who should be taxed How can a census help create a fair tax system? • Put jobless to work building roads and temples and sent other to farm • Economic life grew prosperous. • Under Augustus Pax Romana began

  10. Pax Romana • 31BCE- “Roman Peace” • Peace lasted for 200 years • Augustus chose his own heir carefully, but did not derive any law for selection of later emperors. • Problems arose when new emperors came to power

  11. Emperors during Pax Romana • Caligula = crazy = favorite horse named a consul • Nero persecuted the Christians and started a fire that destroyed most of Rome • Hadrian had a wall created in Britain to hold back enemies • Marcus Aurelius focused on philosophy

  12. Hadrian’s Wall

  13. Economic Impact of Imperialism • Augustus established a uniform system of money. • Enhanced trade. Why would establishing uniform system of money enhance trade? • Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads. • Prosperity and stability of economy.

  14. Social Impact of Imperialism • Stability returned to social classes – end of civil wars. • Middle class enjoyed more rights and a better life. • Increased focus on family. How could focusing on family strengthen the Roman Empire?

  15. Political Impact of Imperialism • Stable government. • Created a civil service system to make internal improvements to Rome. • This also gave jobs to middle class. • Developed a uniform rule of law for all of Rome. • Today Roman law is the foundation of law that developed in Western Europe and the U.S.

  16. Roman Culture and Contributions • Rome embraced and adopted the culture of the Ancient Greeks. • Conquest spread Roman culture and technology throughout Europe. • Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome. What is meant by Western Civilization?

  17. 1. Art and Architecture • Pantheon • Domed structure with seven recesses to honor the gods of the planets. • Has open “eye” in the center to let in sunlight (skylight). • Today it is a church in Rome.

  18. Pantheon

  19. Pantheon

  20. Pantheon inside

  21. Pantheon inside

  22. Pantheon skylight

  23. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=305niNDG8c4 The Pantheon

  24. Colosseum • Held 50,000 people. • Took a decade to construct. • Center for entertainment (gladiators, Christian sacrifices, mazes, naval battles). • Model for modern stadiums.

  25. Colosseum

  26. Colosseum

  27. Colosseum inside

  28. Colosseum inside

  29. Video Clip: Unsolved History: The Roman Colosseum Touring the Colosseum http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=0CCD2227-04DF-4B18-96A8-CB669BD61267

  30. Forum (video) • Public places for political debate. • Contained a number of separate buildings.

  31. Forum

  32. Forum

  33. Circus Maximus • Rome’s race track – Chariot Races • Believed to hold 250,000 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aksOAH7dYsQ – Overall view

  34. Circus Maximus

  35. Circus Maximus

  36. Circus maximus drawing

  37. Chariot Races

  38. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AAHljDbGtA – BEN HUR CHARIOT RACE

  39. 2. Technology Aqueducts • Artificial channels for carrying water. • From mountains and springs to cities using gravity. • From as far as 57 miles away. • Lofty arches built of stone. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTMrfyAt6Mo

  40. Aqueducts

  41. Aqueducts in Rome

  42. Inside aqueducts

  43. Roman Town

  44. Roads • “All roads lead to Rome” • Built of stone, extended throughout Rome for 180,000 miles. • Cement wasn’t needed because stones were masterfully fitted together. • Connected the empire for unity. What other civilization had a large road system?

  45. Roman Roads

  46. Roman Roads http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yu94sFmNwMw

  47. Roman Roads Map

  48. Greco-Roman Culture • Rome borrowed heavily from Greek culture • Blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman culture that spread as Rome spread

  49. 3. Science • Romans tended to leave scientific research to other people like the Greeks • Ptolemy – mathematician/astronomer – proposed theory that Earth was at the center of the universe. • This was believed for 1,500 years. • His work allowed later astronomers to predict the motion of planets.

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