The End of the Republic • The Rise of Antony and Octavian • Rivalry Between Antony and Octavian (44-43) • The Second Triumvirate (43-38) • Civil War Between Antony and Octavian (38-31) • Battle of Actium (31) • Octavian made Emperor (Augustus) (27)
The Empire Under Augustus(27 BCE-14CE) • Government • The Senate • The Assemblies • The Magistrates • The Army • praetorian guard
Life in Ancient Rome • The Roman Family • pater familias • Roman Women • Roman Religion • college of pontiffs, flamens, Vestal Virgins, augurs and auspices, Sibylline books, eastern mystery cults, Imperial Cult
Roman Literature • Augustus’ Literary Circle • Maecenas, Horace, Vergil, Livy, Propertius • The Aeneid • Written between 30 and 19 BCE • Secondary epic vs. primary epic • Questions raised: 1) to what extent are the gods in control? 2) which is stronger—good or evil? 3) what is the duty of a hero? • pietas, furor
The Aeneid • Questions for Discussion: • What kind of propaganda do you see in Jupiter’s speech in I:355-417, especially in the second half? • How do Pyrrhus’ actions in II:707-750 reflect on the pietas of the Greeks? • How is Aeneas affected by the terrible actions of the Greeks, but of what is he reminded (II:751-807)? • How does Dido behave before (I:595-637) and after (IV:86-118) she falls in love with Aeneas, and what effect does it have on the city? • What does Anchises prophesy in VI:1044-1056? • What does Anchises say the purpose of the Roman Empire is (VI:1129-1137)? • Under what conditions are the Latins living under when Aeneas arrives (VII:55-57, 267-271)? • What happens to Queen Amata (VII:428-516)? • Summarize Evander’s story of Hercules and the monster Cacus (VIII:242-351). What bearing do you think this story has on the Aeneid as a whole?
The Aeneid • Questions for Discussion (cont’d): • What is Juno’s defense for her actions (X:90-136)? • What similarity do you see between the acts of Turnus (X:656-695) and Euryalus (IX:466-499)? • How does the death of Pallas affect Aeneas (X:703-738)? • When Lausus attacks Aeneas, after Aeneas kills Mezentius (Lausus’ father), and Aeneas then kills Lausus (X:1092-1141), why do you think Aeneas behaves as he does in X:1132-1141? • How pious is Aeneas after he is wounded by Turnus (XII:665-673)? • Do you think Aeneas does the right thing at the end of the story (XII:1225-1271)?