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CH. 16-3 THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S SQUARE DEAL. AMERICAN HISTORY. ROOSEVELT’S VIEW OF THE PRESIDENCY. 1898—Roosevelt becomes Governor of New York NY Political machine opposed Roosevelt Roosevelt is nominated for Vice-President TAKING OFFICE

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roosevelt s view of the presidency
ROOSEVELT’S VIEW OF THE PRESIDENCY
  • 1898—Roosevelt becomes Governor of New York
  • NY Political machine opposed Roosevelt
  • Roosevelt is nominated for Vice-President
  • TAKING OFFICE
  • 1901--President McKinley is assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz
  • Roosevelt becomes President
  • Youngest President ever – 42 years old
  • Roosevelt was a hands-on leader, unlike previous Presidents
slide3

BULLY PULPIT—a powerful platform to publicize important issues and seek support for his policies

  • Roosevelt brought new momentum to the Progressive movement
  • THE COAL STRIKE OF 1902
  • 150,000 PA coal miners struck for higher wages, shorter hours, and recognition of their union
  • As winter approached, Roosevelt realized the importance of settling the strike
slide4

Roosevelt urged miners and owners to accept arbitration

  • ARBITRATION—two sides allow a third-party to settle the dispute
  • Workers agreed but owners refused
  • Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines until the owners relented and agreed to arbitration plan
  • Final Decision—shorter workday and higher pay but no recognition of the union
  • Roosevelt pronounced the agreement a “square deal”
slide5

THE SQUARE DEAL

  • Became Roosevelt’s campaign slogan in 1904
  • “Each person should get a square deal” because they are entitled to no more or no less
  • The needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced
  • Limit the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improve working conditions
  • Roosevelt faced no opposition securing his party’s nomination
  • He easily defeated his opponent, Judge Alton Parker (D-NY) in the general election
regulating big business
REGULATING BIG BUSINESS
  • Big business was essential to economic growth, but companies should behave responsibly
  • TRUST-BUSTING
  • 1901—J.P. Morgan, James J. Hill, and E.H. Harriman joined their railroads together to eliminate competition
  • Company called the Northern Securities Company
  • 1902—Roosevelt directed the Attorney General to sue the Northern Securities Company for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act
  • 1904—USSC ruled the monopoly did violate the law and ordered the company broken up
slide7

The ruling encouraged the administration to begin an aggressive trust-busting campaign

  • Suits filed against those trusts that Roosevelt thought were bad for the American public
  • REGULATING THE RAILROADS
  • Railroads commonly granted rebates to their best companies
  • Huge companies paid significantly less to ship products
  • 1903—Elkins Act—prohibited railroads from accepting rebates
  • All customers would pay the same rates
slide8

Hepburn Act of 1906 strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission

  • ICC allowed to set maximum railroad rates and regulate other companies that were engaged in interstate commerce
  • PROTECTING COMSUMERS
  • Publics dismayed about practices of food and drug industries
  • Food producers tricked the unknowing public into buy old or rotten food by saying it was fresh
  • Drug companies sold medicines that didn’t work
slide9

Other companies marketed patent, or nonprescription, medicines containing dangerous narcotic drugs

  • Dr. James’ Soothing Syrup—sooth babies’ teething pain
  • Contained heroin
  • Gowan’s Pneumonia Cure contained the addictive painkiller opium
  • Meatpacking industry exposed by novelist Upton Sinclair’s book “The Jungle”
  • Roosevelt directed the Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson to investigate
slide10

Wilson’s report was gruesome reading

  • “We saw meat shoveled from filthy wooden floors, piled on tables rarely washed, pushed from room to room in rotten box carts. In all of which processes it [the meat] was in the way of gathering dirt, splinters, floor filth, and the expectoration [saliva] of tuberculous and other diseased workers”
  • 1906—Congress jumps to action
  • MEAT INSPECTION ACT—required federal inspection of meat shipped across state lines
slide11

PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT—forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients.

  • Food and medicine containers had to carry accurate ingredient labels
environmental conservation
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
  • Late 1800s—people thought the USA had an unlimited amount of natural resources
  • Lumber companies cleared large tracts of land
  • Farmers plowed up the great plains
  • Mining companies clogged rivers and clutter land with refuse
  • 1903—Roosevelt joined naturalist John Muir on a camping trip to Yosemite National Park, CA
  • “Unfortunately God cannot save trees from fools”—J. Muir
  • THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION ACT of 1902
  • Allowed the federal government to create irrigation projects to make dry lands productive
slide13

The Roosevelt Administration launched 20+ reclamation projects

  • GIFFORD PINCHOT was the first to use “conservation”
  • “The conservation of natural resources is the key to the future.”
  • 1905—U.S. Forest Service created with Pinchot as its chief
  • 150+ million acres of forest land added to national forests
  • The Antiquities Act of 1906—created 18 national monuments during these few years
  • Environmental conservation is viewed as Roosevelt’s legacy
  • THE END