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20 th Century India. The last British Colony. The British East India Trading Company. The Crown Jewel – the Company saw India as a moneymaker Indian textiles and spices The Company ran the country like a business They many sure to get certain princes on their

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20 th century india

20th Century India

The last British Colony

the british east india trading company
The British East India Trading Company
  • The Crown Jewel – the Company saw India as a moneymaker
    • Indian textiles and spices
  • The Company

ran the country

like a business

    • They many sure

to get certain

princes on their

side to support

them

benefits of uk rule
Benefits of UK rule
  • Medicine, Transport, Communication, British Education
drawbacks to uk rule
Drawbacks to UK rule
  • Integration of British culture
    • Led to the loss of Indian culture
  • 30,000,000 die when the British force crop changes through the country
changing over to the uk
Changing over to the UK
  • The Sepoy Rebellion (1857-58): the EIC was in control of India through subsidiary alliances but they were forcing out any leader without a legit claim to the throne
    • Used Indian troops to do that
    • Bacon fat led to the rebellion
    • Result: EIC is kicked out of control of India and the power falls to the India Office created quickly in Britain
still changing over
Still Changing Over
  • 1876 – Queen Victoria is named Empress of India with the Royal Titles Act of 1876
  • 1885 – Creation of the Indian National Congress
    • Congress designed to get a more governing power for India in their own country
      • First Imperialized country to use nationalism as a reason for independence
    • Collection of Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus
    • Realize that only violence works…
nope still working on that
Nope Still Working on That
  • 1906 – Muslim League
    • Form because of the Hindu Mahasabha - idea that in order to be Indian you must follow a Hindu way of life
      • start trying to convert Muslims to Hinduism
    • Violence surrounds the Mahasabha so the Muslim break away from the coalition creating the League within the Indian National Congress
enter mohandas gandhi
Enter Mohandas Gandhi
  • Educated in Britain he was a lawyer
  • Started with the Satyagraha Campaign
    • Designed to end the poor treatment of Indians in S. Africa
  • Used civil disobedience
    • Intentional
    • Non-violent
    • Breaking the law and accepting the consequences
    • Designed to change an unjust reality
effects of wwii
Effects of WWII
  • Viceroy of India declared war while the Congress declared neutrality
    • Nationalist leaders resigned their commissions and the country of India remained neutral until Japan was on their doorstep
    • Capture of Indian troops in Singapore
    • Creation of the Indian National Army – liberate Indian with Japanese support
  • Britain sued for peace with India, promising dominion status (self-rule under the protection of Britain)
    • Nehru is made leader and Britain given independence
independence and partitions
Independence and Partitions
  • Muslims supported the British the entire war so they want something in return
  • 16 July 1947 – creation of Pakistan
    • Hindu India and Muslim East and West Pakistan
      • Mass relocation through India
      • Mass violence – ethnic cleansing
more violence and the death of gandhi
More Violence and the Death of Gandhi
  • Over 1 million dead as the mass migration finishes
  • 30 January 1948 – Gandhi assassinated by Hindu Nationalist for supporting partition
jawaharlal nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Ally of Gandhi
  • 1st Prime Minister of India (1947-1961), secularist
  • Advocated Industrialization
  • Promoted “Green Revolution”
  • Socialist Economy
a free india
A Free India
  • To aid poor, Nehru turns to Socialism
    • Economy weak, population on the rise
    • Tried to help lower castes
    • Stressed industry
    • Made Nonalignment to counter bi-polar world
the problem with kashmir is
The Problem with Kashmir is…
  • Hindu governor brought Muslim population into Indian at the partition
    • Both sides want it…war
    • Still at odds…both are nuclear power
us sticks its foot in its mouth again
US Sticks its Foot in its Mouth…Again
  • US sells F-16 jet to Pakistan – India angry
india s green revolution
India’s “Green Revolution”
  • Introduced higher – yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizer, and new irrigation techniques in 1965
    • Established five-year plans to set economic goals
  • Goal – make India self-sufficient in food and grains
indira gandhi no relation
Indira Gandhi…no relation
  • Nehru’s daughter, Prime Minister of India (1966-1984)
  • Continues Nehru’s policies
  • Faced corruption charges and internal nationalist rebellions
    • Implemented large scale sterilization as a form of birth control
another gandhi martyr
Another Gandhi Martyr
  • Violent Sikh separatists attack India
    • June 1984 – Raid on the Golden Temple
    • “Blue Star” – Indian troops attacked the temple to expel Sikh nationalists
      • 500 dead
  • Two Sikh bodyguards killed Gandhi in retaliation
its becoming a family affair
Its Becoming a Family Affair
  • Rajiv Gandhi, son of Indira, in power
  • Brings capitalism
    • Bombed for economic changes
    • These changes saved India
the good the bad and the ugly
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
  • World’s largest democracy
  • Excellent economic growth
  • Still split by ethnic and religious factions
  • Terrible poverty in large areas
religious violence explodes
Religious Violence Explodes
  • 13 May 2008 – Jaipur bombs kill 63, 200+ wounded
  • Aug 2007 – Bombs in open-air auditorium and restaurant in Hyderabad kill more than 40
  • May 2007 – Bomb in historic Hyderabad mosque kills 14
  • February 2007 – Twin blasts on train travelling from Delhi to Pakistan kills at least 66 people near Panipat
  • July 2006 – More than 160 killed by seven bombs on trail network in Mumbai
  • March 2006 – Bombs at Hindu temple and railway station in Varanasi kill 15
  • October 2005 – Three blasts in Delhi kill 62
pakistan
Pakistan
  • Led for a minute by Muhammad Ali Jinnah (friend of Gandhi)
    • Strong Islamic fundamentalism
    • Impoverished
  • 1958 - Muhammad Ayub Khan takes control
  • Pakistan divides in 1972 –
    • W. Pakistan – Pakistan
    • E. Pakistan - Bangladesh
benazir bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
  • First female prime minister – 1988
    • Kicked out in 1990 for corruption
    • Assassinated in 2008
  • Nawaz Sharif
    • Kicked out three times
  • Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists
gen pervez masharaff
Gen. Pervez Masharaff
  • Coup d’etat made Secular gov’t against Islamic fundamentalists
    • US ally in the “War on Terror”
major problems issues in pakistan today
Major Problems & Issues in Pakistan Today
  • Economic development
  • Political instability/militarydictator (Musharraf forced out and Bhutto killed in 2008, Zardari now the President)
  • Hindu-Muslim tension
  • Kashmir (Nuclear Threat)
    • Three wars have been fought over Kashmir (1948, 1965, 1971)
  • Terrorism – Deal making with the Taliban has backfired
it should always end with hope
It should always end with hope…
  • 29 April 2010 – India and Pakistan agree to restart peace talks
  • April 2010 – offensive stance by Pakistani Taliban to target pro-Pakistan local leaders