First person to make and use a lot of microscopes. • The first person to make and use a lot of microscopes was a Dutchman named Anton Leeuwenhoek. Leeuwenhoek lived in the 1600s in the Netherlands, and owned a store full of cloth. Most of Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes were tiny things, not much larger than 1” x 2”.
How to calculate the Magnification on a microscope. • To calculate the magnification of the things you are looking at, multiply the power of the eyepiece by the power of the objective.
Making a Wet Mount • Place a drop of water in the center of the slide with an eye dropper. • Use tweezers to place the sample on the top of the water drop. • Hold the cover slip upright so that one edge of the slip touches the edge of the drop of water. • Gently lower the cover slip over the drop of water and sample, trying not to trap any bubbles.
Units of Measurement • 1 meter (m) = _______ Centimeters (cm) • 1 meter (m) = _______ Millimeters (mm) • 1 centimeter = ______ Millimeters (mm) 100, 1,000 and 10
Parts of the Microscope • Eyepiece • Revolving nosepiece • The arm • The stage • The diaphragm • The coarse adjustment knob • The mirror
Eyepiece • Is the part of the microscope closest to your eye, through which you look. It contains the ocular lens, which makes the image produced by the objective’s lenses larger.
Revolving nosepiece • Holds the objectives and allows you to change objectives while looking at a slide.
The arm • Is the curved metal piece that holds the body tube in place over the stage and the base.
The stage • Is the flat surface on which you put your slides or samples.
The diaphragm • Is used to adjust the amount of light shining through the sample on the stage.
The coarse adjustment knob • Is the large knob used to adjust the position of the body tube, allowing you to quickly bring your sample into view.
The mirror • Located beneath the stage and diaphragm, increase the amount of light shining through your sample.
Micro-Organism • Volvox • Euglena • Cyclops • Elodea leaf • Hydra • Spirogyra • Vorticella • Anabaena
Volvox • Most developed in a series of genera that form spherical colonies. • Each mature Volvox colony is composed of numerous flagellate cells.
Euglena • unicellular protists, of the class Euglenoidea of the phylum Euglenozoa (also known as Euglenophyta). • They are single-celled organisms. Currently, over 1,000 species of Euglena have been described.
Cyclops • is a genus of small freshwater crustaceans (copepods) • characterized by a single eye spot on the head segment. • Cyclops also feature antennae, a segmented body, 5 pairs of legs, and a divided "tail" called a furca.
Elodea leaf • Elodea leaf is composed of two layers of cells.
Hydra • A simple fresh-water animal possessing radial symmetry. • Hydras are predatory animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria and the class Hydrozoa.[ • They can be found in most unpolluted fresh-water ponds, lakes and streams in the temperate and tropical regions by gently sweeping a collecting net through weedy areas
Spirogyra • Are green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus. • It is commonly found in freshwater areas, and there are more than 400 species.
Vorticella • is a genus of protozoa, with over 16 known species. • They are stalked inverted bell-shaped ciliates, placed among the peritrichs.
Anabaena • Anabaena are from a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, found as plankton. • It is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities, and they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants, such as the mosquito fern.