Localisation and Cultural Diversity – Promotion or Elimination? Angela Daly Cs6251 Principal issues IN LOCALISATION
Structure 1. What is Culture? 2. What is Cultural Diversity? 2.1 Hofstede – Strengths 2.2 Hofstede – Weaknesses 3. Why is Culture an Issue in Localisation? 4. Localisation promotes Cultural Diversity 4.1 Cultural Adaptation 4.2 Global Information Flow 4.3 Direct Communication 5. Localisation eliminates Cultural Diversity 5.1 Profit before People 5.2 One-Way Street 5.3 “Neutral” Culture 6. Conclusion 7. References 8. Discussion
1. What is Culture? Oxford English Dictionary: the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively (e.g. 20th century popular culture) the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society (e.g. Afro-Caribbean culture) the attitudes and behaviour characteristic of a particular social group (e.g. the emerging drug culture) [...] http://www.oxforddictionaries.com
1. What is Culture? Edward Burnett Tylor (1871) „Culture or Civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.“ (Tylor 1958: 1) GeertHofstede “Culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others.” http://geert-hofstede.com
1. What is Culture? “Culture” here (working definition) • Culture is the conglomeration of collective ideas, customs, and social behaviour distinguishing the members of one group of people from another.
2. What is Cultural Diversity? OED: • the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society http://www.oxforddictionaries.com • GeertHofstede: • Power Distance (PDI) • Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) • Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) • Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) • Long-Term Orientation (LTO) • Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) http://geert-hofstede.com
2. What is Cultural Diversity? (GeertHofstede) http://geert-hofstede.com
2.1 Hofstede – Strengths Concise set of criteria Easy to describe culture/cultural diversity convenient ranking/grouping of countries Simple operationalisation of culture culture – a variable (also for other models) (Muddyman 2004: 119)
2.2 Hofstede – Weaknesses • Culture limited to countries • Countries not as “stable” as in the past (former Soviet Union) • Cultures traverse national borders • Within one country different cultures (profession, age etc.) • Fluid nature of culture (permeable/ heterogeneous) • Modernisation and convergence (culture effect, not cause) • Hybridisation • Media, Internet, international trade Nakata 2009 Taras et. al. 2009
2.2 Hofstede – Weaknesses • Hofstede focuses on values alone • Perception of values (not values) • Self-reported (not observed in practices) • values not always culturally influenced Hofstede– valuable starting point Exclusive focus on Hofstede not advisable Nakata 2009 Taras et. al. 2009
3. Why is Culture an Issue in Localisation? "[Localisation is] the linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements and locale of a foreign market, and the provision of services and technologies for the management of multilingualism across the digital global information flow.“ R. Schäler 2007: 157 “Culture is a like dropping an Alka-seltzer into a glass - you don't see it, but somehow it does something” Hans Magnus Enzensberger http://www.kwintessential.co.uk
4.1 Cultural Adaptation Localised products/services need to be culturally adapted/cultural markers changed (appeal, usability, branding) Schäler 2013: Localisation and Cultural Adaptation 2/4
4.1 Cultural Adaptation Importance of cultural adaptation Surface • Sound: the word "four" in Japanese sounds like the word "death“ (packages) • Colour: • Thailand: purple – mourning (widow) • Western countries: purple – royalties • Customs: • Saudia Arabia – sole of shoe http://www.kwintessential.co.uk
4.1 Cultural Adaptation Depth • Power Distance (PDI) • EA – “Challenge Everything” • History • UMBRO – running shoes Zyklon (2002) http://www.kwintessential.co.uk
4.2 Global Information Flow • Localisation enables global information flow (by eliminating language “barriers”) – people have access to information about other cultures e.g. Christmas traditions around the world.
4.3 Direct Communication Direct communication (e.g. in online communities) enables people from each locale to have a voice, spread their ideas, beliefs etc. First interim conclusion Localisation promotes or at least respects cultural diversity (especially in advertising, game localisation)
5.1 Profit before People • Culture not focus of localisation effort, but profit, expansion, access to new markets etc. • Businesses mostly localise for consumers (not people) • Consequences: • Many people cannot take part in global conversation as no access • still language barrier • no internet
5.2 One-Way Street • Localisation provides access to a digital world “made in the West” (most products, services etc. originate there; flow in one direction) • Content remains the same Examples: • software produced in the US • Travel guides
5.3 “Neutral” Culture • Localisation/Internationalisation/Globalisationaim for lowest common denominator (LCD)/reusability • Consequences: • Avoid diversity (costly/challenging) • Create globally acceptable standards/appealing designs/icons • new “neutral culture” suppresses local cultures • Example: website design
5.3 “Neutral” culture • “It seems that the Web has promoted the emergence of a cosmopolitan online culture, a hybrid culture overriding traditional cultural differences.“ Stengerset alt. 2004: 1 • "Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."Hofstede 2009:1 Second interim conclusion Culture is not the focus of localisation, but a “barrier” and should be (if possible) avoided/ eliminated
6. Conclusion At present, localisation contributes more to the elimination of cultural diversity, than to its promotion BUT: Localisation is also the best way to promote cultural diversity vital changes are needed…
6. Conclusion Changes: • Focus on people (not consumers/profits) • Accessibility of digital content in as many languages as possible • Culture as a stimulant (not barrier) • More involvement/participation opportunities for people worldwide to avoid: • dominance of one culture (“West”) • dominance of “neutral” culture Schäler 2002: 8
7. References General: • Hofstede, Geert (2009) ‘Cultural Dimensions’, Week 6, CS6251: Principal Issues in Localisation [online], available: http://lrc-edu.csisdmz.ul.ie/MoodleFiles/LM632/01%20CS6251%20PIL/Reading/wk07%20Geert%20Hofstede%20Cultural%20Dim...pdf • Kellner, H., Soeffner, H.-G. (2002) ‘Cultural Globalization in Germany‘, in Berger, P. L. and Huntington, S., eds., Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World, Oxford: University Press, 119-145. • Muddyman, Garry (2004) ‘Globalisation as Localisation: A Model for Measuring Cultural Diversity’ , Localization Reader 2006-2007, 119-120. • Nakata C. (2009) ‘Going Beyond Hofstede: ‘Why we Need to and How’, in Nakata, C., ed., Beyond Hofstede: Cultural Framework for Global Marketing and Management, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 3-15. • Schäler, R. (2002) ‘The Cultural Dimension in Software Localisation’, Localization Reader 2003-2004, 5-8.
7. References General: • Schäler, R. (2007) ‘Localization’, in Baker, M., Saldanha, G., eds., Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, 2nd ed., New York: Routledge, 157-161. • Schäler, R. (2013) ‘Week 6: Localisation and Cultural Adaptation’, CS6251: Principal Issues in Localisation [online], available: http://moodle.csisdmz.ul.ie/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=5039 • Stengers, H., De Troyer, O., Baetens, M., Boers F., Mushtaha, A. (2004) ‘Localization of Web Sites: Is there still a need for it?’, International Workshop on Web Engineering (held in conjunction with the ACM HyperText 2004 Conference), Santa Cruz, USA, available: http://wisepc1.vub.ac.be/sites/default/files/publications/LocalizationOfWebSites.pdf [accessed 30 Oct 2013]. • Taras, V., Steel, P. (2009) ‘Beyond Hofstede: ‘Challenging the Ten Commandments of Cross-Cultural Research ‘, in Nakata, C., ed., Beyond Hofstede: Cultural Framework for Global Marketing and Management, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 40-60. • Tylor, E. (1958) The Origins of Culture, New York: Harper and Row.
7. References Websites: Culture OED: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/culture Hofstede:http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html Cultural Diversity OED: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/cultural-diversity?q=cultural+diversity Hofstede: http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html Kwintessential: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/read-our-blog/localisation-never-ignore-language-culture-and-slang.html http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cultural-services/articles/cross-cultural-advertising.html The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1405692/Umbro-drops-its-Zyklon-shoe-after-Jewish-protests.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/3776970/Arab-culture-the-insult-of-the-shoe.html
7. References Images: • slide 2: http://www.cartoonwork.com/discrimination_g53-cultural_diversity_in_the_workplace_p1309.html • slide 8: http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html • slide 11: • http://laofutze.wordpress.com/2009/08/28/303/ • Schäler, R. (2013) ‘Week 6: Localisation and Cultural Adaptation’, CS6251: Principal Issues in Localisation [online], available: http://moodle.csisdmz.ul.ie/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=5039 • slide 13: http://www.glasbergen.com/?s=cultural+diversity • slide 15: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/read-our-blog/localisation-never-ignore-language-culture-and-slang.html • slide 16: • http://inovativesolution.net/cronus/administrator/ea-games-challenge-everything • http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/read-our-blog/localisation-never-ignore-language-culture-and-slang.html
7. References Images: • slide 17: http://www.viennacityflats.at/christkind/Ich-glaub-ans-Christkind.html • slide 18: http://www.woman.at/mywoman/kersi/stories/813358 • Slide 19: http://www.glasbergen.com/?count=2&s=cultural%20diversity • slide 20: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm • slide 21: Schäler, R. (2013) ‘Week 6: Localisation and Cultural Adaptation’, CS6251: Principal Issues in Localisation [online], available: http://moodle.csisdmz.ul.ie/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=5039 • slide 23: • http://www.fudan.edu.cn • http://www.ul.ie • http://www.harvard.edu • http://www.iust.ac.ir [all accessed 3 Nov 2013 unless stated differently]
8. Discussion Any questions?