chapter 46 bowel elimination l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination. Bonnie M. Wivell, MS, RN, CNS. Scientific Knowledge Base. Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination. Age Infants: small stomach capacity; less secretion of digestive enzymes; rapid peristalsis; lack neuromuscular development so cannot control bowels

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 46 bowel elimination

Chapter 46: Bowel Elimination

Bonnie M. Wivell, MS, RN, CNS

factors affecting bowel elimination
Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
  • Age
    • Infants: small stomach capacity; less secretion of digestive enzymes; rapid peristalsis; lack neuromuscular development so cannot control bowels
    • Older adults: arteriosclerosis which causes decreased mesenteric blood flow, decreasing absorption in small intestine; decrease in peristalsis; loose muscle tone in perineal floor and anal sphincter thus are at risk for incontinence; slowing nerve impulses in the anal region make older adults less aware of need to defecate leading to irregular BMs and risk of constipation
factors affecting bowel elimination4
Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
  • Diet: fiber such as whole grains, fresh fruits and vegies help flush the fats and waste products from the body with more efficiency; decreased fiber → increased risk of polyps; be aware of food intolerances
  • Fluid intake: 6-8 glasses of noncaffeinated fluid daily; liquifies intestinal contents easing passage through colon
  • Physical activity: promotes peristalsis
  • Psychological factors: stress increases peristalsis resulting in diarrhea and gaseous distention; ulcerative colitis; IBS; gastric and duodenal ulcers; crohn’s disease
  • Personal habits: fear of defecating away from home
  • Position during defecation: squatting is the normal position
factors affecting bowel elimination5
Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
  • Pain: hemorrhoids, rectal surgery, rectal fistulas and abd. surgery
  • Pregnancy: increased pressure; slowing peristalsis in third trimester
  • Surgery and Anesthesia: lows or stops peristalsis; paralytic ileus = direct manipulation of the bowel and lasts 24-48 hours
  • Medications: laxatives and cathartics; laxative overuse can decrease muscle tone and can cause diarrhea which can result in dehydration and electrolyte imbalance; see Table 46-2
  • Diagnostic tests: bowel prep; barium
common bowel elimination problems
Common Bowel Elimination Problems
  • Constipation
    • Causes: improper diet, reduced fluid intake, lack of exercise, and certain meds
    • A significant health hazard
  • Impaction
    • Causes: unrelieved constipation
    • Debilitated, confused, and unconscious more at risk
    • Continuous ooze of diarrhea is a suspect sign
  • Diarrhea
    • Causes: antibiotics via any route; enteral nutrition; food allergies or intolerance; surgeries or diagnostic testing of the lower GI tract; C. difficile; communicable food-borne pathogens
common bowel elimination problems7
Common Bowel Elimination Problems
  • Incontinence
    • Causes: physical conditions that impair anal sphincter function or control
  • Flatulence
    • Causes: certain foods; decreased intestinal motility
    • Can become severe enough to cause abd distention and severe sharp pain
  • Hemorrhoids = dilated, engorged veins; internal or external
    • Causes: straining with defecation; pregnancy; heart failure; chronic liver disease
bowel diversions
Bowel Diversions
  • Ostomies: Certain disease /conditions prevent normal passage of stool; temporary or permanent artificial opening in the abd wall; location determines consistency of stool
    • Loop colostomy: Usually done emergently; temporary; usually involves transverse colon; two openings through one stoma – stool and mucus; external supporting device usually removed in 7-10 days
    • End colostomy: one stoma formed from the proximal end of the bowel and distal portion of the GI tract removed or sewn closed (Hartman’s pouch); common in colorectal cancer and rectum is usually removed; temporary in surgery for diverticulitis
    • Double-barrel colostomy: bowel is surgically severed and two ends brought out onto the abd; proximal stoma functions and distal stoma is nonfunctioning
bowel diversions cont d
Bowel Diversions Cont’d.
  • Alternative procedures
    • Ileoanal pouch: colon removed for tx of ulcerative colits or familial polyps; pouch is formed from distal end of small intestines and attached to anus; pouch acts as rectum so pt. is continent; has temporary ileostomy while healing
    • Kock continent ileostomy: consists of a reservoir constructed from small bowel and nipple valve which keeps contents of reservoir inside body; permits entry of external catheter to drain pouch
    • Macedo-Malone Antegrade Continence Enema (MACE); for improving continence in pts with neuropathic or structural abnormalities of the anal sphincter
care of the patient with a bowel diversion
Care of the Patient With aBowel Diversion
  • “Bagging” the ostomy
  • Assessing stoma and skin
  • Assessing stool output
  • New stoma vs. Old stoma
  • Patient education and counseling
psychological considerations
Psychological Considerations
  • Body image changes
  • Face a variety of anxieties and concerns
  • Must learn how to manage stoma
  • Cope with conflicts of self-esteem and body image
  • Can be concealed with clothing but pt. aware of its presence
  • Difficulty with intimacy/sexual relations
  • Foul odors, leakage, spills and inability to control or regulate passage of gas and stool is embarrassing
  • Ostomy support:
    • United Ostomy Association
    • National Foundation for Ileitis and Colitis
nursing process and bowel elimination
Nursing Process and Bowel Elimination
  • Assessment
    • Nursing history (see Box 46-2)
      • Usual elimination pattern
      • Usual stool characteristics
      • Routines to promote normal elimination
      • Use of artificial aids
      • Presence/status of bowel diversions
      • Changes in appetite
      • Diet history
      • Daily fluid intake
      • History of surgery or illnesses of GI tract
      • Medication history
      • Emotional state
      • History of exercise
      • Pain or discomfort
      • Social history
      • Mobility and dexterity
nursing process and bowel elimination24
Nursing Process and Bowel Elimination
  • Physical assessment of the abdomen
    • Mouth: poor dentition, dentures, mouth sores
    • Abdomen: inspect, auscultate, palpate, percuss
    • Rectum: inspect
  • Inspection of fecal characteristics
  • Review of relevant test results
    • Fecal specimens: cannot mix feces with urine or water
      • Stool for occult blood (FOBT or guiac) see Box 46-3
      • Fecal fat requires 3-5 days of collection
      • Ova & Parasites (O&P)
    • Labs: bilirubin, ALK, Amylase, CEA
    • Diagnostic Exams: KUB, endoscopy, colonoscopy, barium enema, barium swallow, US, MRI, CT scan (may require pre-procedure preparation)
nursing diagnosis
Nursing Diagnosis
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Constipation
  • Risk for constipation
  • Perceived constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Toileting self-care deficit
  • Body image, disturbed
  • Goals and outcomes
    • Client sets regular defecation habits
    • Client is able to list proper fluid and food intake needed to achieve bowel elimination
    • Client implements a regular exercise program
    • Client reports daily passage of soft, formed brown stool
    • Client doesn’t report any discomfort associated with defecation
  • Setting Priorities
  • Collaborative Care - WOCN
  • Health Promotion: establish routine
    • Promotion of normal defecation
      • Sitting position
      • Position on bedpan – see pg. 1196
      • Privacy
  • Acute Care
    • Meds
    • Cathartics and laxatives
    • Antidiarrheal agents
    • Enemas
types of enemas
Types of Enemas
  • Cleansing enemas
    • Tap water
    • Normal saline
    • Hypertonic solutions
    • Soapsuds
  • Oil Retention
  • Carminative – Mag, gylcerin and water; relieves gaseous distention
  • Medicated enemas – Kayexalate
implementation cont d
Implementation Cont’d.
  • Enema administration
    • “Enemas till clear”
    • See pages 1200-1202
  • Digital removal of stool – last resort
    • Can cause irritation to the mucosa, bleeding and stimulation of vagus nerve
  • Inserting and maintaining a nasogastric tube
ng tubes
NG Tubes
  • Levine or salem sump tubes are most common for stomach decompression or lavage
  • See pages 1204-1209 for insertion procedure
  • Connected to intermittent suction (LIS)
  • Air vent should NEVER be clamped, connected to suction or used for irrigation
  • Not a sterile technique
  • Care of pt. with NG
    • Comfort
    • Frequent mouth care/gargling
    • Maintain patency of tube
    • Turn client frequently to allow for adequate emptying
continuing and restorative care
Continuing and Restorative Care

Care of ostomies

Irriating a colostomy

Pouching ostomies (see pages 1211-1215)

Nutritional considerations with ostomies

Bowel training

Proper fluid and food intake

Regular exercise


Skin integrity


The effectiveness of care depends on how successful the client is in achieving goals and outcomes

Optimally the client will be able to have regular, pain-free defecation of soft-formed stools

It is necessary to ask questions so establishing a therapeutic relationship is VERY important

Nursing interventions may be altered if necessary