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A Joint Australian Fusion Energy Initiative. Strategic plan for Fusion Science – ITER forum Capability, infrastructure, Flagship Diagnostic? Initial ISL projects – Howard $0.5M, Hole et al $0.4M Next Step ? Clean Energy Fund? $3M Govt, $3M others Expertise:

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A joint australian fusion energy initiative
A Joint Australian Fusion Energy Initiative

  • Strategic plan for Fusion Science – ITER forum

    • Capability, infrastructure, Flagship Diagnostic?

  • Initial ISL projects – Howard $0.5M, Hole et al $0.4M

  • Next Step ? Clean Energy Fund? $3M Govt, $3M others


    • plasma diagnostics: typically spectroscopy and laser (ANU, Syd, Macq)

    • Exotic and high temperature materials (ANSTO, Unew,Syd, ANU….)

    • peculiar plasma shapes (heliac)

    • Theory

  • Divertors and plasma walls!

    couple with “unclaimed” ITER diagnostic subsystems

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Flaked-off deposited films and dust: JET Divertor

Pumping slots







Tile 4

J.P. Coad, 1998

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

  • There are 2 LASER based depth probing techniques (LASER radar1 & Speckle interferometry2) which meet ITER requirements if a 2-wavelength system is used.

  • Measure net effect of erosion and deposition

  • No Tokamak tested prototype, however, LASER radar used off-line on TFTR

  • need reference point to distinguish erosion from vessel/divertor displacement

  • from dome, target strike zones are visible (change in divertor profile)

1) Erosion Measurement system

[1] K Itami et al

[2] P. Dore et al

Dore P and Gauthier E 2006 Speckle interferometry: a diagnostic for erosion-redeposition measurements in

fusion devices 17th Int. Conf. on Plasma Surface Interaction in Controlled Fusion Devices (Hefei, China,

22–6 May 2006)

Wider australian fusion relevant capabilities


Wider Australian fusion-relevant capabilities

  • Atomic and molecular physics modeling

  • High heat flux alloys

  • MAX alloys synthesis

  • Materials characterisation

  • Quasi-toroidal pulsed cathodic arc

  • Plasma theory/ diagnostics

  • Dusty Plasmas

The University of Sydney

  • Plasma spectroscopy

  • MHD and kinetic theory

  • Materials science analysis

Faculty of Engineering

  • joining and material properties under high heat flux

  • High temperature materials

  • Manages OPAL research reactor

Australian Nuclear Science &Tec. Org.

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

MAX alloys are one promising route : radar

M = transition metal (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta)

A = Al, Si, P, S, Ga, Ge, As, Cd, In, Sn, Tl, Pb

X = either C or N

Different Stochiometries  over 600 potential alloys.

Spectroscopy lab

The first wall of a fusion reactor has to cope with the

‘environment from hell’ so it needs a ‘heaven sent surface’.

A sample of Material Science research in Australian Universities – Newcastle Univ.also University of Sydney, Melbourne

  • heat load of 10-100 MW m-2

  • 14 MeV neutron irradiation

  • 10 keV D, T, He bombardment

  • Good thermal, electrical conductor

  • high melting point

  • ideally composed of low Z specie

  • not retain too much hydrogen

  • high resistance to thermal shocks

Finite b equilibria in h 1nf
Finite- radarb equilibria in H-1NF

S. Lloyd (ANU PhD) , H. Gardner

EnhancedHINT code of late T. Hayashi, NIFS


b = 2%

b = 1%

Island phase reversal: self-healing occurs between 1 and 2% b

Mrxmhd multiple relaxation region model for 3d plasma equilibrium

Different radar in each region

MRXMHD: Multiple relaxation region model for 3D plasma equilibrium

Motivation: In 3D, ideal MHD

(A) magnetic islands form on rational flux surfaces, destroying flux surface

(B) equilibria have current singularities if p  0

Present Approach: ignore islands (eg. VMEC ), or adapt magnetic grid to try to compensate (PIES). Latter cannot rigorously solve ideal MHD – error usually manifest as a lack of convergence.

ANU/Princeton project: To ensure a mathematically well-defined J, we set p = 0 over finite regions  B = B,  = const (Beltrami field)separated by assumed invariant tori.

Prof i bray curtin university presentation to iaea 2009
Prof. I. Bray: Curtin University radarPresentation to IAEA 2009

Atomic cross sections for iter
Atomic Cross-Sections for ITER radar

World-leading calculation of atomic cross-sections relevant to fusion using their “Convergent Close Coupling” (CCC) Method

Recent study of U91+, Li, B3+ and Tungsten (W73+) for ITER

Iec doppler spectroscopy in h 2 predicting experimental fusion rates

IEC: radarDoppler spectroscopy in H2: Predicting experimental fusion rates

J. Kipritidis & J. Khachan


A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Results: radarsample Hα spectrum at the anode wall

(Summed H2+, H3+)

This peak used for prediction


A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Densities of radarfast H2.5+at the cathode aperture are ~ 1-10 x 1014 m-3

Results: neutron counts! (constant voltage) PhysRevE 2009

Dissociation fractions ffastat apertures are ~ 10-6(increases with current!)

Slope=1 line

Supports neutral on neutral theory:

Shrier, Khachan, PoP 2006


(Summed H2+, H3+)

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Levitation of Different Sizes Particles - radarSamarian

Bulk Plasma

Sub-micron particles

Sub-micron dust cloud

Sheath Edge

2.00 micrometer dust

3.04 micrometer dust

3.87 micrometer dust

4.89 micrometer dust

Levitation Height

6.76 micrometer dust

Powered Electrode

RF Sheath Diagnostic

  • Probing of sheath electric field on different heights

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Dust Deflection in IEC Fusion Device – radarSamarian/Khachan

IEC Diagnostic

IEC ring electrodes


Phys Letts A


  • Dust particle being deflected towards the rings are visible on the left hand side

Anu university of sydney collaboration
ANU - University of Sydney collaboration radar

Brian James

Daniel Andruczyk

  • Development of a He pulsed diagnostics beam

  • Te profiles measured in H-1NF, from He line intensity ratios, with aid of collisional radiative model

John Howard

Scott Collis

Robert Dall

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Collection optics radar

Pulsed He source


Pulsed Valve

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Spectral line emissivity vs radius radar

Tevs radius


emissivity falls as beam moves into the plasma due to progressive ionization

Researchexamples from h 1

ResearchExamples from H-1 radar

  • Effect of Magnetic Islands on Plasma

  • Alfven Eigenmodes in H-1

Researchexamples from h 11

ResearchExamples from H-1 radar

  • Effect of Magnetic Islands on Plasma

  • Alfven Eigenmodes in H-1

H 1 configuration shape is very flexible
H-1 configuration (shape) is very flexible radar

  • “flexible heliac” : helical winding, with helicity matching the plasma,  2:1 range of twist/turn

  • H-1NF can control 2 out of 3 oftransform () magnetic well and shear  (spatial rate of change)

  • Reversed Shear Advanced Tokamak mode of operation

low shear

 = 4/3

 = 5/4

medium shear

Blackwell, International Meeting on the Frontiers of Physics, Malaysia 2009



Experimental confirmation of configurations

Santhosh Kumar radar

Experimental confirmation of configurations

Rotating wire array

  • 64 Mo wires (200um)

  • 90 - 1440 angles

    High accuracy (0.5mm)

    Moderate image quality

    Always available

    Excellent agreement with computation

Mapping magnetic surfaces by e beam tomography raw data
Mapping Magnetic Surfaces by E-Beam Tomography: Raw Data radar

M=2 island pair

For a toroidal helix, the sinogram looks very much like part of a vertical projection (top view)

Sinogram of full surface

Good match confirms island size location
Good match confirms island size, location radar

computed +

e-beam mapping (blue/white )

Good match between computed and measured surfaces

  • Accurate model developed to account for all iota (NF 2008)

  • Minimal plasma current in H-1 ensures islands are near vacuum position

  • Sensitive to shear identify sequence number  high shear surfaces “smear”

Iota ~ 3/2

Iota ~ 1.4 (7/5)

Effect of magnetic islands
Effect of Magnetic Islands radar

Giant island “flattish” density profile

Possibly connected to core electron root enhanced confinement

Central island – tends to peak

Blackwell, International Meeting on the Frontiers of Physics, Malaysia 2009

Spontaneous appearance of islands
Spontaneous Appearance of Islands radar

Iota just below 3/2

– sudden transition to bifurcated state

Plasma is more symmetric than in quiescent case.

Uncertainty as to current distribution (and therefore iota), but plausible that islands are generated at the axis.

If we assume nested magnetic surfaces, then we have a clear positive Er at the core – similar to core electron root configuration?

Many unanswered questions……Symmetry?How to define Er with two axes?

Identification with alfv n eigenmodes n e
Identification with Alfvén Eigenmodes: n radare


  • Coherent mode near iota = 1.4, 26-60kHz, Alfvénic scaling with ne

  • Poloidal mode number (m) resolved by “bean” array of Mirnov coils to be 2 or 3.

  • VAlfvén = B/(o) B/ne

  • Scaling in ne in time (right) andover various discharges (below)



f 1/ne

Critical issue in fusion reactors:

VAlfvén ~ fusion alpha velocity fusion driven instability!

Blackwell, International Meeting on the Frontiers of Physics, Malaysia 2009

A joint australian fusion energy initiative

Fluctuation Spectra Data from Interferometer upgrade: radar

(Rapid electronic wavelength sweep)


Fluctuation spectra


Fast sweep <1ms

D Oliver

Alfven mode decomposition by svd and clustering
Alfven Mode Decomposition by SVD and Clustering radar

  • 4 Gigasamples of data

    • 128 times

    • 128 frequencies

    • 2C20 coil combinations

    • 100 shots

  • Initial decomposition by SVD  ~10-20 eigenvalues

  • Remove low coherence and low amplitude

  • Then group eigenvalues by spectral similarity into fluctuation structures

  • Reconstruct structuresto obtain phase difference at spectral maximum

  • Cluster structures according to phase differences (m numbers)

     reduces to 7-9 clusters for an iota scan

    Grouping by SVD+clustering potentially more powerful than by mode number

    • Recognises mixturesof mode numbers caused by toroidal effects etc

    • Does not depend critically on knowledge of thecorrect magnetic theta coordinate

increasing twist